Encephalartos eugene-maraisii 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos eugene-maraisii I.Verd.
Common Name(s):
English Waterberg Cycad

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2d; C1 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
There has been significant collecting over the past 30 years and, based on plants in private collections, this is estimated as a >50% population reduction. Although recent surveys show relatively little illegal collecting, farm managers still feel that collecting is taking place.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in the Waterberg range in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Occurs from 1,400 to 1,500 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
South Africa (Limpopo Province)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:50
Number of Locations:12
Lower elevation limit (metres):1400
Upper elevation limit (metres):1500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There are small scattered subpopulations. Poaching of plants has resulted in individuals being far from one another in certain cases. Nature conservation officials undertook helicopter surveys in 2004 and counted 982 plants in 12 localities. This is regarded as a slight underestimate due to poor visibility at the time of surveying.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:982-1200
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The cycads grow on sandstone hills and rocky ridges of the Waterberg range. They grow in open grassland and savanna.
Generation Length (years):70

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): E. eugene-maraisii is threatened due to over-collecting for ornamental purposes and this could lead to reproductive failure.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. Plants are protected within the boundaries of the Marakele National Park and the Entabeni Private Game Reserve and also in the Sterkrivier Training Area of the South African National Defence Force. The latter is a Natural Heritage Site.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Goode, D. 1989. Cycads of Africa. Struik Winchester, Cape Town.

Goode, D. 2001. Cycads of Africa. D & E Cycads of Africa, Gallo Manor, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Grobbelaar, N. 2002. CYCADS - with special reference to the southern African species. Privately published by Nat Grobbelaar, Pretoria, South Africa.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos eugene-maraisii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41904A10587250. . Downloaded on 22 September 2018.
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