|Scientific Name:||Chiloscyllium punctatum|
|Species Authority:||Müller & Henle, 1838|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Bennett, M.B. & Kyne, P.M. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003)|
|Reviewer(s):||Fowler, S. & Cavanagh, R.D. (Shark Red List Authority)|
Chiloscyllium punctatum is a widely distributed and probably fecund (oviparous) tropical species occurring in a variety of habitats throughout its range. Within Australia the species is assessed as Least Concern as a portion of its habitat is protected in marine parks and it is not a target species, except perhaps for the aquarium trade. It is an extremely hardy species that would presumably survive as a discard in any trawl bycatch. However, throughout much of the rest of its range, the species is likely to be threatened by overfishing for human consumption, habitat loss due to destructive fishing methods on coral reefs, and collection for the display-aquarium trade. It fails to meet the criteria for Vulnerable due to insufficient data, but is assessed as Near Threatened globally because of concern over the significant impact that these practices must be having on this species in much of its range.
|Range Description:||Little is know about the populations of this species. Compagno (2001) reports that it was seen in large numbers at a fish market at Samut, near Bangkok, Thailand. Blaber, Brewer and Harris (1994) report the occurrence of the species in a trawl survey of the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, but it was recorded as one of the least abundant species of fish caught. It is encountered reasonably often on the reef flats in the Capricorn-Bunker group, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia, and in Moreton Bay, Queensland. It has been seen in groups of up to a dozen individuals at specific locations in Moreton Bay that provide protection/cover in otherwise open environments (M.B. Bennet, pers. obs.). It is not uncommon to catch this species when bottom bait-fishing in Moreton Bay, suggesting that it is present in reasonable numbers.|
Native:Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia); Cambodia; China; India; Indonesia (Jawa, Papua, Sulawesi, Sumatera); Japan; Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Singapore; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Viet Nam
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – western; Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Found on coral reefs, on sand and sand/mud substrates throughout its range. Probably occurs on soft substrates in deeper water, to at least 85 m. The species is extremely hardy and can tolerate severe environmental hypoxia, a trait that allows it to occupy and survive in environments that undergo cyclical hypoxic conditions (e.g., coral reef flats). Oviparous species. Hatches at 13 to 17 cm total length (TL) and attains a maximum adult size of about 118 cm TL (M. B. Bennet pers. obs.). Males mature at 68 to 76 cm TL, females at about 63 cm TL (Compagno 2001). Small individuals hide in crevices and among coral and are well camouflaged with their broad banding pattern. Feeds on benthic organisms and small fishes. In Moreton Bay the diet comprises crabs, polychaete worms, shrimps and small teleost fishes (M.B. Bennet pers. obs).|
|Use and Trade:||aquarium use|
|Major Threat(s):||Widespread collection for human consumption in artisanal and commercial fisheries and habitat damage over much of its range (not Australia) are the major threats to this species. Collection for the aquarium trade is a minor threat, especially as the species is hardy and will breed prolifically in captivity. Inshore seine-netting, trap fishing and bait fishing are probably the primary modes of collection. Damage and destruction of coral reef habitat from dynamite fishing, other destructive fishing practices and pollution are known to be widespread in large parts of its range.|
|Conservation Actions:||The species is protected in a significant proportion of its range on the east coast of Australia in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and the Moreton Bay Marine Park. While fishing is still allowed in most areas of the parks, the species is not targeted and is likely to survive capture as bycatch.|
Blaber, S.J.M., Brewer, D.T. and Harris, A.N. 1994. Distribution, biomass and community structure of demersal fishes of the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 45: 375-396.
Compagno, L.J.V. 2001. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Vol. 2. Bullhead, mackeral and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). FAO species catalogue for fisheries purposes. No. 1. Vol. 2. FAO, Rome.
IUCN. 2003. 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 18 November 2003.
IUCN SSC Shark Specialist Group. Specialist Group website. Available at: http://www.iucnssg.org/.
|Citation:||Bennett, M.B. & Kyne, P.M. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003). 2003. Chiloscyllium punctatum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2003: e.T41872A10581953. . Downloaded on 04 May 2016.|