|Scientific Name:||Eusphyra blochii|
|Species Authority:||(Cuvier, 1816)|
Zygaena laticeps Cantor, 1837
Zygaena latycephala van Hasselt, 1823
|Taxonomic Notes:||Synonyms = Zygaena latycephala van Hasselt, 1823; Zygaena laticeps Cantor, 1837. The name Sphyrna blochii has also been used recently for this species.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Simpfendorfer, C.A. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003)|
|Reviewer(s):||Fowler, S., Cavanagh, R.D. & Kyne, P.M. (Shark Red List Authority)|
This highly distinctive Indo-west Pacific continental shelf species is fished throughout its range. In southern Asia and Indonesia it is subjected to a range of fisheries and is probably heavily exploited. There are no scientific data on its status, and biological data are incomplete, but based on anecdotal accounts and market surveys the population is assumed to have declined and is assessed as Near Threatened. In the future it may reach a level that would warrant a Vulnerable listing.
In Australia it is only a small component of commercial catches, the population is considered to be relatively healthy and is assessed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species occurs on and near continental shelf waters of the Indo-West Pacific from the Arabian Gulf though south Asian, Indonesia and northern Australia.|
Native:Australia; Bangladesh; China; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Myanmar; Pakistan; Philippines; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Viet Nam
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There are no data available on population numbers for any part of the range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||A unique species of hammerhead with an extremely large hammer. The young are born at approximately 45 cm, maturity occurs at around 110 cm, and they reach a maximum size of 186 cm (Stevens and Lyle 1989). Mature females produce litters of 6-11 every year after a gestation period of 8 to 11 months (Compagno 1984). There are no age and growth data available for this species. As a consequence it is difficult to predict the productivity of its life history. The diet is composed of teleost fishes, crustaceans and cephalopods.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is heavily exploited in some parts of its range, especially in the Gulf of Thailand, India and Indonesia (L. Compagno, pers. comm., William White, Murdoch University, pers. comm). Anecdotal reports indicate that in these areas the populations have been impacted by fishing and in the near future may require a listing as Vulnerable based on population decline. Within Australian waters it is only lightly exploited by gillnet and longline fishing|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures for this species.|
Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Volume 4, Part 1.
IUCN. 2003. 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 18 November 2003.
IUCN SSC Shark Specialist Group. Specialist Group website. Available at: http://www.iucnssg.org/.
Stevens, J.D. and Lyle, J.M. 1989. Biology of three hammerhead sharks (Eusphyra blochii, Sphyrna mokarran and S. lewini) form Northern Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 40:129–146.
|Citation:||Simpfendorfer, C.A. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003) 2003. Eusphyra blochii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 August 2015.|