Chlamydoselachus anguineus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Chondrichthyes Hexanchiformes Chlamydoselachidae

Scientific Name: Chlamydoselachus anguineus
Species Authority: Garman, 1884
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Frilled Shark, Lizard Shark, Scaffold Shark
Taxonomic Notes: There is a possible subspecies or distinct but undescribed species off the Namibian and South-east African coast (L. Compagno pers. comm.)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2003
Date Assessed: 2003-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Paul, L. & Fowler, S. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003)
Reviewer(s): Shark Specialist Group Australia & Oceania Regional Group (Shark Red List Authority)
A generally rare to uncommon deepwater species, with a few localities where it is taken more commonly as bycatch in several fisheries. Not an important target species, but a regular though small bycatch in many bottom trawl, midwater trawl, deep-set longline, and deep-set gillnet fisheries. As bycatch, this species is variously either used for meat, fishmeal, or discarded. Occasionally kept in aquaria (Japan). There is some concern that expansion of deepwater fisheries effort (geographically and in depth range) will increase the levels of bycatch. Although little is known of its life history, this deepwater species is likely to have very little resilience to depletion as a result of even non-targeted exploitation. It is classified as Near Threatened due to concern that it may meet the Vulnerable A2d+A3d+4d criteria.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Generally rare, only a few localities where it is more common. Range almost worldwide.
Countries occurrence:
Angola (Angola); Australia; Chile; France; Guyana; Japan; Mauritania; Morocco; Namibia; New Zealand; Norway; Portugal (Madeira); South Africa; Spain; United Kingdom; United States (California)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – eastern central; Pacific – southeast; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: No information on population size anywhere.
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Marine, demersal or benthopelagic, reported as occasionally pelagic on the upper and middle continental slope, 100 to 1,500 m, usually 500 to 1,000 m. An active predator on deepwater squid and a variety of fish (including other sharks). Large mouth with sharp inwards-pointing teeth can take large prey, but this shark is not considered dangerous to man. Born 40 to 60 cm total length (TL). Mature 97 to 117 cm TL (males), 135 to 150 cm TL (females). Maximum approximately 196 cm TL (females). Ovoviviparous with 6 to 12 pups per litter, possibly a long gestation period but life cycle basically unknown.
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Not a targeted fisheries species, but taken as bycatch in bottom and midwater trawls, deep-set longlines, and in deep-set gill nets. No population baseline or trends available. Some concern that increased deepwater fisheries effort (geographically and in depth range) may increase levels of bycatch. The bycatch is sometimes utilized for fishmeal and for meat. Occasionally kept in aquaria (Japan).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: None known for this species. A very few states are developing or have developed shark management plans within the context of the FAO IPOA-Sharks, but few if any of these include measures for the management of deepwater fisheries bycatch.

Classifications [top]

10. Marine Oceanic -> 10.1. Marine Oceanic - Epipelagic (0-200m)
suitability: Unknown  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing    

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.4. Unintentional effects: (large scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing    

Bibliography [top]

Bass, A.J. 1979. Records of little-known sharks from Australian waters. Proceedings of the Linnean Society N.S.W. 103(4): 247–254.

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Volume 4, Part 1.

Gudger, E.W. and Smith, B.G. 1933. The natural history of the frilled shark Chlamydoselachus anguineus. In: E.W. Gudger (ed.). Bashford Dean Memorial Volume on Archaic Fishes. American Museum of Natural History, New York. pp. 245–319

IUCN. 2003. 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 18 November 2003.

IUCN SSC Shark Specialist Group. Specialist Group website. Available at:

Kubota, T., Shiobara, Y. and Kubodera, T. 1991. Food habits of the frilled shark Chlamydoselachus anguineus collected from Suruga Bay, central Japan. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries. 57(1): 15–20.

Last, P.R. and Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia. Second Edition. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

Nakaya, K. and Bass, A.J. 1978. The frill shark Chlamydoselachus anguineus in New Zealand seas. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 12(4): 397–398.

Roedel, P.M. and Ripley, W.E. 1950. California sharks and rays. California Fisheries Bulletin No. 75.

Stewart, A.L. 2000. The frill shark. Seafood New Zealand 8(8): 74–76.

Tanaka, S., Shiobara, Y., Hioki, S., Abe, H., Nishi, G., Yano, K. and Suzuki, K. 1990. The reproductive biology of the frilled shark, Chlamydoselachus anguineus, from Suruga Bay, Japan. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology. 37(3): 273–291.

Tumokhin, I.G. 1980. Discovery of the frill shark, Chlamydoselachus anguineus, in the south-west Indian Ocean. Journal of Ichthyology. 20(1): 125–126.

Uyeno, T., Matsuura K. and Fujii, E. (eds) 1983. Fishes trawled off Suriname and French Guiana. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Citation: Paul, L. & Fowler, S. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003). 2003. Chlamydoselachus anguineus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2003: e.T41794A10548228. . Downloaded on 25 June 2016.
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