Sus celebensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Suidae

Scientific Name: Sus celebensis Müller & Schlegel, 1843
Common Name(s):
English Sulawesi Warty Pig, Celebes Pig, Celebes Warty Pig, Celebes Wild Boar
French Sanglier De Célèbes
Sus floresianus (Heude, 1899)
Sus timoriensis Müller, 1840

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Burton, J. & Macdonald, A.A.
Reviewer(s): Leus, K. & Oliver, W. ( Pig, Peccary & Hippo Red List Authority)
Listed as Near Threatened because this species is probably in significant decline (but probably at a rate of less than 30% over ten years) because of widespread over-hunting and habitat loss through much of its range, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable under criterion A2cd.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:S. celebensis is a medium sized pig which is still found in abundance in central, east and south-east Sulawesi. It is now scarce in south and north-east Sulawesi and may be extinct on nearby Selayar Island. It also occurs as a native form on the adjacent islands of Buton, Muna, Kabeana, Peleng, Lembeh and on some of the Togian Islands (Burton and Macdonald 2006). As originally shown by Groves (1981), this species has also been truly domesticated and widely transported to other islands, where it has also often hybridized with S. scrofa, thus giving rise to a variety of introduced domestic and feral pig populations amongst the Indonesian the islands of Flores, Timor, Simeuleu, Seram, Buru and Nias Islands. Domesticated forms of S. celebensis can be seen on the islands of Roti and Sawu (Groves 1983, Bell 1987). Wild pigs from Halmahera, previously referred to as feral S. celebensis, have been shown to have greater genetic affinity to the New Guinea pigs (Larson et al. 2005).
Countries occurrence:
Indonesia (Sulawesi)
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):2500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:A recent island wide survey (Riley 2002) found no records of pigs in three areas in the north east peninsula of Sulawesi, and low densities in the central region of the island. Populations in both these regions appear to have been affected by demand for pig meat in Minahasa and Palu areas, respectively. While the south-east area had the highest population densities, the demand for pig meat locally was lowest. Densities ranged from 0.4-2.0 animals/km² (Panua Nature Reserve) in the north peninsula to 5.1-14.5 animals/km² (Tanjung Peropa Nature Reserve) in the south-east peninsula. A recent study in the latter site found densities in lowland forest to be 23.5 animals/km² (Jamaludin et al. in prep). This data highlights the increasing pressure from hunting on the pigs of Sulawesi, as reported elsewhere (Clayton et al. 1997, 2000; Lee et al. 2005).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Sulawesi Warty Pigs are reported to occur in a wide variety of habitats, ranging from rainforest and swamp, to open grasslands and agricultural areas, and at all altitudes up to moss forest (>2,500 m) (MacKinnon 1981), though they are less common at altitudes above 1,500 m asl (Burton in press). They usually live in groups of from one to six animals, but the social composition of these groups is incompletely known (Macdonald 1991; Macdonald et al, 1996). In one population (Tanjung Peropa Wildlife Reserve) the sex ratio of adults was found to be 1:1.25 (n=25) and group size varies between 2 and 9, with an average of 5 individuals (n=16) (Jamalundin in prep). Groups generally consisted of 1-3 young, 1-2 subadults and 1-3 adults. They forage during the day, this activity being concentrated in the early morning and evening. Although roots, fallen fruit, leaves and young shoots constitute the bulk of their diet, invertebrates, small vertebrates and carrion are also eaten.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): S. celebensis does not have any important natural predators on Sulawesi and its offshore islands other than the reticulated python (Python reticulates). Changing land-use and hunting pressure have caused a reduction in its former range. This pig species is not considered threatened over much of its range at the present time (Burton and Macdonald 2006). However, wide scale deforestation for timber and conversion of land for agriculture, coupled with human population expansion and immigration have resulted in a marked contraction of its range in some places. In addition, resources are insufficient to enforce controls on hunting, and there are reports that subsistence and/or organized commercial hunting is continuing even within designated reserves and national parks (Smiet 1982, Blouch 1990). The high volume of trade in this species raises concerns about the sustainability of this current harvesting rate. Completion of the Trans-Sulawesi Highway (1980) probably increased importation of wildlife within and into North Sulawesi from the rest of the island. Data was recently collected from market surveys from northeast Sulawesi and road blocks on the Trans-Sulawesi Highway (Lee et al. 2005). In the study it was noted that "trade in the Sulawesi pig is alarmingly high for such a large-bodied animal". The expansion of human settlements also brings an increased threat of genetic contamination and/or disease to the wild pig populations. Future threats will include the loss of this species high genetic diversity through the decline into small isolated populations (Burton and Macdonald 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species occurs in some protected areas. Those where significant populations of warty pigs are found include Lore Lindu (2,310 km2), Bogani Nani-Wartabone (2,871 km2), Morowali (2,250 km2) and many other smaller sites. Within all of these areas the species is technically fully protected by law. A Wildlife Crimes Unit Program was developed for wildlife trade monitoring and law enforcement in North Sulawesi. This has been active since 2001, however, overall trade in wild mammals has increased by 30% during this time, mainly from unprotected species (Lee et al. 2005). This Unit cannot control the levels of trade in the warty pig because hunting of this species is not prohibited outside of protected areas. The species has only very rarely been kept in captivity outside its country of origin; and, as far as is known, pure-bred animals have never been produced in captivity (Burton and Macdonald 2006).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.8. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.6. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.8. Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.1. Small-holder plantations
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Sus domesticus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.1. Hybridisation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Bell, J. 1987. Nutrition and reproduction of Indonesian wild pigs. Edinburgh University.

Blouch, R.A. 1990. Report from the field: Indonesia. Smithsonian Institution Conservation and Research Centre Newsletter 1: 6-8.

Burton, J. and Macdonald, A. A. 2006. The Sulawesi Warty Pig (Sus celebensis), a status review. Suiform Soundings 6(2): 5-13.

Burton, J. and Macdonald, A. A. In press. Variation in distribution and abundance of large mammals in Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Malayan Nature Journal.

Clayton, L. M. and Milner-Gulland, E. J. 2000. The Trade in Wildlife in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. In: J. G. Robinson and E. L. Bennett (eds), Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Rainforests, pp. 473-496. Columbia University Press, New York, USA.

Clayton, L. M., Keeling, M. J. and Milner-Gulland, E. J. 1997. Bringing home the bacon: A spatial model of the wild pig hunting in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ecological Applications 7(2): 642-652.

Groves, C. 1983. Pigs east of the Wallace Line. Journal de la Societe des Oceanistes 39: 105-119.

Groves, C.P. 1981. Ancestors for the Pigs: Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Genus Sus. Technical Bulletin, Department of Prehistory, School Pacific Studies, Australian National University 3: 1-9.

IUCN. 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Jamaludin, M., Mustari, A. H., Hernowo, J. B. and Burton, J. In prep.. Population density and structure of Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) in Tanjung Peropa Wildlife Reserve, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Larson, G., Dobney, K., Albarella, U., Fang, M., Matisoo-Smith, E., Robins, J., Lowden, S., Finlayson, H., Brand, T., Willersley, E., Rowley-Conwy, R., Andersson, L. and Cooper, A. 2005. Worldwide phylogeography of wild boar reveals multiple centers of pig domestication. Science 307: 1618-1621.

Macdonald, A. A. 1991. Monographe des Celebesschweines (Sus celebensis). Bongo 18: 39-45.

Macdonald, A. A., Leus, K., Florence, A., Clare, J. and Patry, M. 1996. Notes on the behaviour of Sulawesi Warty pigs Sus celebensis in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Malayan Nature Journal 50: 47-53.

MacKinnon, J. 1981. The distribution and status of wild pigs in Indonesia. Report to IUCN/SSC Pigs and Peccaries Specialist Group.

Riley, J. 2002. Current Wildlife Conservation Society research and conservation of Sulawesi's suids. Asian Wild Pig News 2(2): 26-30.

Smiet, F. 1982. Threats to the Spice Islands. Oryx 14: 323-328.

Citation: Burton, J. & Macdonald, A.A. 2008. Sus celebensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T41773A10559537. . Downloaded on 27 May 2018.
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