|Scientific Name:||Encephalartos aemulans Vorster|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(v)+2ab(v); C2a(ii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.|
Listed as Critically Endangered under criterion B because it occurs essentially at one location with continuing decline in the number of individuals, and under criterion C because there are <250 mature plants with >90% in one subpopulation. The A criterion (used in the previous assessment) was not used as the extent of the decline cannot be properly estimated.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The species is endemic to South Africa and occurs in the KwaZulu-Natal province. It is known from one viable population in the Vryheid district. The plants grow on a hill at an altitude of 1,000 to 1,100 m. Two old male plants were found approximately 10 km away at an altitude of 600 m.|
Native:South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||According to Scott-Shaw (1999), there were 150 plants surviving in the wild. Donaldson and co-workers counted <100 (in part of the population) in 1997, but unverified reports put the total at about 250 individuals. Active seedling regeneration is taking place.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The plants prefer south facing sandstone cliffs in short grassland. Plants also occur below the cliffs in humus-rich scree where especially small plants were found in more shady conditions. Mature coning plants are fully exposed. The north and north-east slopes only had a few very old plants and conditions do not seem to favour seedling regeneration. The climate is hot in summer and cold in winter with possible light frost. Rainfall is 600-800 mm per annum with a summer maximum.|
|Generation Length (years):||70|
|Major Threat(s):||This species' occurrence at a single site means the plants are vulnerable to environmental perturbations. Collecting has been a problem in the past although the bulk of the plants now occur within a private nature reserve. Collecting, however, still remains an issue.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. A large part of the population occurs within a private nature reserve. However the reserve is not secure against poachers and the owner believes that plants are still disappearing.|
Hill, K.D. and Stevenson, D.W. 1998 - 2006. The Cycad Pages. Available at: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/PlantNet/cycad/index.html.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
Scott-Shaw, C.R. 1999. Rare and Threatened Plants of KwaZulu-Natal and Neighbouring Regions. KwaZulu-Natal Nature Conservation Services, Pietermaritzburg.
Von Breitenbach, F. and J. 1992. Tree Atlas of Southern Africa. Dendrological Foundation, Pretoria, South Africa.
Vorster, P. 1990. Encephalartos aemulans (Zamiaceae), a new species from northern Natal. South African Journal of Botany 56(2): 239-243.
|Citation:||Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos aemulans. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41765A10533658.Downloaded on 26 May 2018.|
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