|Scientific Name:||Encephalartos aemulans Vorster|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(v)+2ab(v); C2a(ii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.|
Listed as Critically Endangered under criterion B because it occurs essentially at one location with continuing decline in the number of individuals, and under criterion C because there are <250 mature plants with >90% in one subpopulation. The A criterion (used in the previous assessment) was not used as the extent of the decline cannot be properly estimated.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The species is endemic to South Africa and occurs in the KwaZulu-Natal province. It is known from one viable population in the Vryheid district. The plants grow on a hill at an altitude of 1,000 to 1,100 m. Two old male plants were found approximately 10 km away at an altitude of 600 m.|
Native:South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||According to Scott-Shaw (1999), there were 150 plants surviving in the wild. Donaldson and co-workers counted <100 (in part of the population) in 1997, but unverified reports put the total at about 250 individuals. Active seedling regeneration is taking place.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The plants prefer south facing sandstone cliffs in short grassland. Plants also occur below the cliffs in humus-rich scree where especially small plants were found in more shady conditions. Mature coning plants are fully exposed. The north and north-east slopes only had a few very old plants and conditions do not seem to favour seedling regeneration. The climate is hot in summer and cold in winter with possible light frost. Rainfall is 600-800 mm per annum with a summer maximum.|
|Generation Length (years):||70|
|Major Threat(s):||This species' occurrence at a single site means the plants are vulnerable to environmental perturbations. Collecting has been a problem in the past although the bulk of the plants now occur within a private nature reserve. Collecting, however, still remains an issue.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. A large part of the population occurs within a private nature reserve. However the reserve is not secure against poachers and the owner believes that plants are still disappearing.|
Hill, K.D. and Stevenson, D.W. 1998 - 2006. The Cycad Pages. Available at: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/PlantNet/cycad/index.html.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
Scott-Shaw, C.R. 1999. Rare and Threatened Plants of KwaZulu-Natal and Neighbouring Regions. KwaZulu-Natal Nature Conservation Services, Pietermaritzburg.
Von Breitenbach, F. and J. 1992. Tree Atlas of Southern Africa. Dendrological Foundation, Pretoria, South Africa.
Vorster, P. 1990. Encephalartos aemulans (Zamiaceae), a new species from northern Natal. South African Journal of Botany 56(2): 239-243.
|Citation:||Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos aemulans. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41765A10533658.Downloaded on 18 August 2018.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|