|Scientific Name:||Prionodon linsang|
|Species Authority:||(Hardwicke, 1821)|
Viverra linsang Hardwicke, 1821
|Taxonomic Notes:||The two Asian linsang Prionodon species, formerly classified as part of the civet family (Viverridae), are now known to comprise their own separate family, the Prionodontidae (see Gaubert and Veron 2003, Gaubert and Cordeiro-Estrela 2006, Barycka 2007). Four subspecies of Banded Linsang P. linsang have been described, but there has been no recent taxonomic revision: P. l. linsang from southern Myanmar, southern Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra; P. l. gracilis from Java and Borneo; P. l. fredericae from Bangka Island; and P. l. interlinus from Belitung Island (Van Rompaey 1993).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Duckworth, J.W., Mathai, J., Chutipong, W., Brodie, J. & Wilting, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Cheyne, S. & Azlan J., M.|
Banded Linsang is listed as Least Concern, because, although in common with other Sundaic evergreen forest species, it can be assumed to be in range-wide population decline (with extensive deforestation over the last few decades), there is neither evidence nor suspicion that this is at a rate sufficient to qualify it even as Near Threatened (in particular, the species's wide altitudinal range puts a large proportion of its range outside the altitudinal bands of major Sundaic forest conversion; see Miettinen et al. 2011). There is no evidence that it is a target species in hunting or trade, or any other reason why populations would be declining within remaining habitat. Available information suggests significant tolerance of encroachment and even use of plantations (e.g., Lim 1973; see 'Habitats and ecology' section), implying that population decline rates will be lower than forest loss rates. The rise in camera-trapping across its range in the last 20 years has found it in many areas. Encounter rates are generally low; this is assumed to represent a mix of natural low density (as typical for a highly carnivorous species; not a sign of recent decline within remaining habitat) and a tendency for camera-trapping, as typically employed, to be not particularly effective at detecting it when present. Some surveys find it amongst the most-encountered small carnivores and whether this reflects locally high abundance or specific camera-trap setting style more appropriate to the species is not known. More information on the effectiveness of camera-trapping in detecting the species would allow more confident deductions about its global status.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Banded Linsang occurs in Sundaic South-east Asia (Van Rompaey 1993, Jennings and Veron 2015), including the Thai-Malay Peninsular (Malaysia, e.g. Ratnam et al. 1995, Azlan 2003, Kawanishi and Sunquist 2004; southern Myanmar, e.g., Than Zaw et al. 2008; southern and south western Thailand, e.g. Chutipong et al. 2014); Borneo (Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei, e.g. Van Rompaey 1993, Wells et al. 2005); Sumatra (e.g. Holden 2006); and Java (e.g. Suyanto 2003, Rode-Margono et al. 2014), as well as the smaller islands of Bangka and Belitung (Van Rompaey 1993). It is evidently widespread on the Thai-Malay Peninsular, Borneo and Sumatra (Jennings and Veron 2015). On Java, it has been suggested to be perhaps restricted to the west, but there are two historical specimens from the Ijang plateau in East Java (held in Museum für Naturkunde, Humboldt Universität, Berlin, Germany), and, given recent decades' very low levels of small carnivore survey in Java (see, e.g., Riffel 1991), the species's range on Java might be larger than yet documented. The northernmost confirmed record in the world is from Mae Wong National Park, Thailand, at 15°53′N, considerably further north than for the various other Sundaic small carnivores (Chutipong et al. 2014). It perhaps occurs in Myanmar even further north, to about 16°30′N; but this is based on an old record that lacks detail on origin (Steinmetz and Simcharoen 2006). A claim in northern-central Thailand at 17° 54'N (Humphrey and Bain 1990) is probably erroneous (Steinmetz and Simcharoen 2006); it would be biogeographically highly surprising, it lacks detail or verifiable support, and the species is surprisingly often confused with others (Than Zaw et al. 2008). It has been recorded from altitudes ranging from 11 to 2,700 m (Jennings and Veron 2015).|
Native:Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia (Jawa, Kalimantan, Sumatera); Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak); Myanmar; Thailand
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population status of Banded Linsang is poorly known. Various authors have considered it uncommon or rare, apparently based solely on the paucity of records relative to some other sympatric mammals (Chasen 1940, Ellerman and Morrison-Scott 1961, Davis 1962, Lim 1973, Lekagul and McNeely 1977, Van Rompaey 1993). Since these assessments, camera-trapping has found the species widely throughout its range, in most evergreen survey areas other than those with only low search effort. Most surveys within its range - whether based on camera-trapping or direct observation (spotlighting) - typically find it only a handful of times. Whether this generally low recording rate represents genuinely low population density or simply elusive behaviour, or some combination of the two, is not clear (Van Rompaey 1993). By contrast, several surveys have camera-trapped it more frequently than most other small carnivores, in single survey areas in Java (Yoneda et al. 1998), Borneo (Samejima and Semiadi 2012) and peninsular Malaysia (Hedges et al. 2013). Whether these have covered areas supporting unusually large numbers of the species, or whether these surveyors' precise style of camera-trapping was particularly suitable to find it, is unclear; relative recording rates from two survey teams using different camera-trap setting methodology in Deramakot Forest Reserve, Sabah, Malaysia, suggest that detection likelihood of Banded Linsang might depend strongly on precise camera-trapping style (Wilting et al. 2010). If the typically low encounter rate indicates a generally low population density, this could have implications for forest-block size likely to support the species into the long term.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Banded Linsang natural history has never been studied in the field and most statements about it are based to a greater or lesser extent on speculation and extrapolation from little real information. It has been recorded in primary and secondary forest and in human-inhabited areas (e.g., Van Rompaey 1993, Ratnam et al. 1995, Azlan 2003, Kawanishi and Sunquist 2004, Wells et al. 2005). Its range coincides well with Sundaic evergreen forest, and although at the northern extent of its range, in Thailand, some records come from survey areas containing both evergreen and deciduous forest, all precisely located records there come from evergreen forest, despite substantial survey effort in deciduous areas (Chutipong et al. 2014). Java is the only other part of its range containing extensive deciduous areas but there has been no collation of records from the island to examine habitat use. Many records come from degraded and/or fragmented forest, and Lim (1973), with more direct experience of the species in the wild than most people who have written about it, considered that it might even be associated with secondary growth and edge habitats. This assessment was based, in part, on analysis of stomach contents, indicating that sightings in such habitats are not simply of animals in transit. Similarly, in both north-east Peninsular Malaysia and in Sarawak, Mohd Azlan J. (pers. comm. 2006) recorded it in secondary forest, including some adjacent to oil palm plantations. By contrast, Brodie et al. (2015) in Malaysian Borneo found lower local prevalence in forests that were selectively logged within the previous 10 years than in unlogged forests; in areas selectively logged more than 10 years previously, local prevalence was intermediate.|
The many camera-trap records now available show that Banded Linsang is almost entirely nocturnal (e.g. Jennings and Veron 2015). It appears to be typically solitary and highly carnivorous (Lim 1973, Jennings and Veron 2015). It is a good climber (Van Rompaey 1993) but statements that it is largely arboreal lack strong empirical support. The many camera-trap records now available show that it spends much time on the ground, and factors other than arboreality perhaps explain the relatively low encounter rates; by comparison, the largely sympatric Malay Weasel Mustela nudipes is typically camera-trapped even less frequently than in Banded Linsang, and this is not suspected to reflect arboreality (e.g., Ross et al. 2013). It can live up to ten years and eight months in captivity (Jones 1982).
|Generation Length (years):||4.2|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||There is no evidence of specific trade or subsistence demand for Banded Linsang or any of its parts. Nonetheless, because much hunting in its range uses non-selective methods, there is certainly some off-take.|
|Major Threat(s):||Population declines are surely under-way for Banded Linsang, at least in proportion to the rate of conversion of forest into non-forest habitats. Such conversion has been rampant in the Sundaic lowlands in recent decades (e.g. Holmes 2000, BirdLife International 2001, Jepson et al. 2001, McMorrow and Talip 2001, Lambert and Collar 2002, Kinnaird et al. 2003, Curran et al. 2004, Fuller 2004, Eames et al. 2005, Miettinen et al. 2011, Stibig et al. 2014). It has recently slowed in some areas (e.g. Thailand, West Malaysia, Sabah, Java), in part because there is now little forest left outside protected areas; but rates are still high in some other areas (notably Sumatra, Kalimantan and Myanmar). While such conversion renders some of the species's former habitat now unsuitable, it is unlikely to be a threat to its survival or maintenance of natural range, given the species's wide altitudinal use (forest conversion rates in hills are considerably lower) and use of edge and degraded areas. Similarly, while there is some off-take and even international trade (e.g., from Thailand to USA; Van Rompaey 1993), there is nothing to suggest that this is potentially at levels threatening to the species except at the most local of levels.|
|Conservation Actions:||Banded Linsang is listed on CITES Appendix II. In Peninsular Malaysia and in Sabah it receives full protection, but in Sarawak it is not a totally protected species (J. Mathai pers. comm. 2014). It is a totally protected species in Myanmar (Than Zaw et al. 2008) and Thailand under the Wild Animal Reservation and Protection Act 2003 (Chutipong et al. 2014). This species has been recorded in many protected areas across its range. These include, for example, nearly all those comprising evergreen forest that have been surveyed using suitable methodology to sufficient intensity potentially to find the species in its Thai range (Chutipong et al. 2014); comparable compilations do not exist for other parts of its range. A large proportion (over a quarter, as assessed by Jennings and Veron 2015) of suitable habitat in its range is already within gazetted protected areas, indicating a low degree of short-term risk. However, many of these protected areas have little long-term security: forest conversion occurs in many, and if this continues, then the species might become threatened through habitat loss. Although not a priority species for research in South-east Asia, a better understanding of natural history (particularly those facets that would help in the interpretation of survey results for local status assessment) would improve confidence in assessing its global conservation status.|
Aratrakorn, S., Thunhikorn, S. and Donald, P.F. 2006. Changes in bird communities following conversion of lowland forest to oil palm and rubber plantations in southern Thailand. Bird Conservation International 16: 71-82.
Azlan, J. 2003. The diversity and conservation of mustelids, viverrids, and herpestids in a disturbed forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Small Carnivore Conservation 29: 8–9.
Barycka, E. 2007. Evolution and systematics of the feliform Carnivora. Mammalian Biology 72(5): 257-282.
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.
Brodie, J.F., Giordano, A.J., Zipkin, E.F., Bernard, H., Mohd-Azlan, J. and Ambu, L. 2015. Correlation and persistence of hunting and logging impacts on tropical rainforest mammals. Conservation Biology 29(1): 110–121.
Chasen, F.N. 1940. A handlist of Malaysian mammals; a systematic list of the mammals of the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo and Java, including the adjacent small islands. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum, Singapore 15: 1-209.
Chutipong, W., Tantipisanuh, N., Ngoprasert, D., Lynam, A.J., Steinmetz, R., Jenks, K.E., Grassman, L.I., Jr., Tewes, M., Kitamura, S., Baker, M.C., McShea, W., Bhumpakphan, N., Sukmasuang, R., Gale, G.A., Harich, F.K., Treydte, A.C., Cutter, P., Cutter, P.B., Suwanrat, S., Siripattaranukul, K., Hala-Bala Wildlife Research Station, Wildlife Research Division and Duckworth, J.W. 2014. Current distribution and conservation status of small carnivores in Thailand: a baseline review. Small Carnivore Conservation 51: 96–136.
Curran, L.M., Trigg, S.N., Mcdonald, A.K., Astiani, D., Hardiono, Y.M., Siregar, P., Caniago, I. and Kasischke, E. 2004. Lowland forest loss in protected areas of Indonesian Borneo. Science 303: 1000–1003.
Fuller, D.O. 2004. Deforestation is out of control in Indonesia. Environmental Review 11: 8-16.
Gaubert, P. and Cordeiro-Estrela, P. 2006. Phylogenetic systematics and tempo of evolution of the Viverrinae (Mammalia, Carnivora, Viverridae) within feliformians: Implications for faunal exchanges between Asia and Africa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41: 266-278.
Gaubert, P. and Veron, G. 2003. Exhaustive sample set among Viverridae reveals the sister-group of felids: the linsangs as a case of extreme morphological convergence within Feliformia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences 270: 2523-2530.
Hedges, L., Clements, G.R., Aziz, S.A., Yap, W., Laurance, S., Goosem, M. and Laurance, W.F. 2013. Small carnivore records from a threatened habitat linkage in Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. Small Carnivore Conservation 49: 9–14.
Holden, J. 2006. Small carnivores in central Sumatra. Small Carnivore Conservation 34/35: 35-38.
Holmes, D. 2000. Deforestation in Indonesis: a review of the situation in Sumatra, Kalimantan and Sulawesi. World Bank, Jakarta, Indonesia.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).
Jennings, A.P. and Veron, G. 2015. Predicted distributions, niche comparisons, and conservation status of the Spotted Linsang (Prionodon pardicolor) and Banded Linsang (Prionodon linsang). Mammal Research 60: 107–116.
Jepson, P., Jarvie, J.K., Mackinnon, K. and Monk, K.A. 2001. The end for Indonesia's lowland forests? Science 292: 859.
Kawanishi, K. and Sunquist, M.E. 2004. Conservation status of Tigers in a primary rainforest of Peninsular Malaysia. Biological Conservation 120(3): 329–344.
Kinnaird, M.F., Sanderson, E.W., O'Brien, S.J., Wibisono, H.T. and Woolmer G. 2003. Deforestation trends in a tropical landscape and implications for endangered large mammals. Conservation Biology 17(1): 245–257.
Lambert, F.R. and Collar, N.J. 2002. The future for Sundaic lowland forest birds: long-term effects of commercial logging and fragmentation. Forktail 18: 127–146.
Lim, B.L. 1973. The banded linsang and the banded musang of West Malaysia. Malaysian Natural History Journal 26: 105–111.
Mcmorrow, J. and Talip, M.A. 2001. Decline of forest area in Sabah, Malaysia: Relationship to state policies, land code and land capability. Global Environmental Change-Human & Policy Dimensions 11: 217-230.
Miettinen, J., Shi, C. and Liew, S.C. 2011. Deforestation rates in insular Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2010. Global Change Biology 17: 2261–2270.
Mohd-Azlan, J. and Engkamat, L. 2006. Camera trapping and conservation in Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 54(2): 405–411.
Riffel, M. 1991. An update on the Javan Ferret-Badger Melogale orientalis (Horsfield 1821). Mustelid and Viverrid Newsletter 5: 2-3.
Rode-Margono, E.J., Voskamp, A., Spaan, D., Lehtinen, J.K., Roberts, P.D., Nijman, V. and Nekaris, K.A.I. 2014. Records of small carnivores and of medium-sized nocturnal mammals on Java, Indonesia. Small Carnivore Conservation 50: 1–11.
Ross, J., Hearn, A.J. and Macdonald, D.W. 2013. Recent camera-trap records of Malay Weasel Mustela nudipes in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Small Carnivore Conservation 49: 20–24.
Samejima, H. and Semiadi, G. 2012. First record of Hose’s Civet Diplogale hosei from Indonesia, and records of other carnivores in the Schwaner Mountains, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Small Carnivore Conservation 46: 1–7.
Schreiber, A., Wirth, R., Riffel, M. and Van Rompaey, H. 1989. Weasels, civets, mongooses, and their relatives. An Action Plan for the conservation of mustelids and viverrids. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Steinmetz, R. and Simcharoen, S. 2006. Observations of Banded Linsang Prionodon linsang at the northern edge of its range, with a review of recent northerly records. Small Carnivore Conservation 34/35: 29-31.
Stibig, H.-J., Achard, F., Carboni, S., Raši, R. and Miettinen, J. 2014. Change in tropical forest cover of Southeast Asia from 1990 to 2010. Biogeosciences 11: 247–258.
Suyanto, A. 2003. Mammals of Gunung Halimun National Park, West Java. Puslit-Biologi-LIPI, Bogor, Indonesia.
Than Zaw, Saw Htun, Saw Htoo Tha Po, Myint Maung, Lynam, A.J., Kyaw Thinn Latt and Duckworth, J.W. 2008. Status and distribution of small carnivores in Myanmar. Small Carnivore Conservation 38: 2–28.
Van Rompaey, H. 1993. The Banded Linsang, Prionodon linsang. Small Carnivore Conservation 9: 11-15.
Yoneda, M., Ladjar, L.N. and Sakaguchi, N. 1998. Camera trap study in Cikaniki, Gunung Halimun National Park. In: H. Simbolon, M. Yoneda and J. Sugardjito (eds), Gunung Halimun: the last submontane tropical forest in West Java. Research and Conservation of Biodiversity in Indonesia, vol IV., pp. 96–104. LIPI–JICA–PHPA Biodiversity Conservation Project in Indonesia, Bogor, Indonesia.
|Citation:||Duckworth, J.W., Mathai, J., Chutipong, W., Brodie, J. & Wilting, A. 2016. Prionodon linsang. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T41705A45219711.Downloaded on 25 March 2017.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|