|Scientific Name:||Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780|
Although commonly known as the American black bear, coat color (even within a single litter) ranges from black to various shades of brown. Black-colored bears predominate in the eastern and northern parts of the range, whereas the proportion of brown-colored individuals generally increases moving westward: brown-colored black bears predominate in California, Arizona, New Mexico, and parts of the Rocky Mountains (Rounds 1987). Variation in color-phase occurs within individual states and provinces, related to habitat and weather (Beecham and Rohlman 1994). A rare white (non-albino) color phase, associated with a single recessive gene, occurs in coastal British Columbia (Ritland et al. 2001). A very rare “blue” (grey) color phase known as the Glacier bear occurs in northwestern British Columbia and along the coast of Alaska (McTaggart Cowan 1938, Obbard 1987).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Garshelis, D.L., Scheick, B.K., Doan-Crider, D.L., Beecham, J.J. & Obbard, M.E.|
|Reviewer(s):||van Manen, F.T.|
This species is widespread and occupies a large portion of its historical range. The global population is estimated at more than twice that of all other species of bears combined. Within the United States, populations have been expanding numerically and geographically. Legal hunting is the primary cause of mortality and is well controlled by state and provincial management agencies in the U.S. and Canada, respectively. Hunting is banned in Mexico. Population-level threats exist in only a few isolated places, and relate mainly to habitat fragmentation and conflicts between bears and people. Many management agencies are more concerned with controlling population growth of this species through legal harvest than promoting further growth and geographic expansion (which could increase human–bear conflicts).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
American black bears range across three countries: 12 provinces and territories of Canada (all except Prince Edward Island, where they were once abundant, but the last known one shot in 1927; Sobey 2007); 41 U.S. states (with sightings but undefined ranges in 5 other states); and 6 states of northern Mexico (Scheick and McCown 2014) (with sightings in 4 other Mexican states and a recent record of a dead bear farther south in the state of Hidalgo; Rojas-Martínez and Juárez-Casillas 2013). The species never existed outside of these three countries, although the southern historic limit is not well known. The present range falls within 69°29´ to 23°14´ N (with the incidental record in Hidalgo at 21°05’30” N) and 52°49´ to 164°10´W.
Native:Canada; Mexico; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Heavily persecuted since European settlement of North America, compounded by loss of forest cover, American black bear populations rapidly declined, and probably reached a nadir in the early 1900s. Greater state and provincial protection for bears enabled populations to slowly recover. More rapid growth occurred with increasing protective measures since the late 1980s (Williamson 2002). By 1999, 60% of U.S. and Canadian states and provinces reported increasing populations, and other jurisdictions appeared to be either stable or fluctuating with no clear trend (Garshelis and Hristienko 2006). Many of these trend assessments, though, were not derived from serial estimates of population size.
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
American black bears are primarily a species of temperate and boreal forests, but they also range into subtropical areas of Florida and Mexico as well as into the subarctic. They live at elevations ranging from sea level to 3,500 m, and inhabit areas as diverse as dry Mexican deserts and scrub forests, Louisiana swamps, Alaskan rainforests, and Labrador tundra (where they occupy the typical niche of the grizzly bear; Veitch and Harrington 1996). Between these extremes they occupy assorted deciduous and coniferous forest types, each providing a different array of foods.
|Use and Trade:||
A looming concern, but not a widespread problem in North America, is the poaching of bears for their paws and gall bladders, which may be sold commercially. Those products, particularly bile from gall bladders, are highly valued by practitioners of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Several U.S. states and Canadian provinces allow the sale of bear parts taken legally by hunters, either within that jurisdiction or transported into that jurisdiction from elsewhere (Williamson 2002). An argument can be made that this creates opportunities for poachers to employ an illicit pathway into the legal, commercial trade. However, illegal trade appears to be very limited.
Throughout most of its range, this species is not threatened. Legal sport hunting is well controlled by state and provincial agencies to fit management objectives, and most states and provinces that harvest bears have a management plan (Hristienko and McDonald 2007). American black bears are harvested as a game species in all 12 Canadian provinces and territories where they exist and in 31 U.S. states. Since the early 2000s, 6 states with increasing bear populations opened bear hunting seasons ― Florida, New Jersey and Maryland, after 21-, 33- and 51-year closures, respectively, and Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Nevada for the first time in their management history. The sport harvest for this species in Canada and the U.S. totals 40,000–50,000 annually. Currently, black bears are not legally hunted in Mexico, but some conditional permits are allowed for depredation cases.
n the U.S. and Canada, black bears are managed by individual states and provinces, so although an IUCN conservation action plan exists for this species (Pelton et al. 1999), each state and province sets their own goals and methods for achieving those goals. As a whole, this has worked well to re-establish robust populations of black bears across their range. Several key factors aided the rapid rebound of American black bears since the 1980s: (1) improved habitat, (2) large dispersal distances in high-quality habitat (Moore et al. 2014), (3) relatively high reproductive rates, (4) reduced human-caused mortality, and (5) better information about the biology and ecology of bears combined with better population monitoring techniques (Miller 1990).
|Errata reason:||The previous version of this assessment accidentally used the estimated total number of American Black Bears as the number of mature individuals. That error is corrected here.|
Alt, G. L. 1989. Reproductive biology of female black bears and early growth and development of cubs in northeasern Pennsylvania. West Virginia University.
Atwood, T.C., Young, J.K., Beckmann,J.P., Breck, S.W., Fike, J., Rhodes, O.E., Jr., and Bristow, K.D. 2011. Modeling connectivity of black bears in a desert sky island archipelago. Biological Conservation 144: 2851-2862.
Bales, S.L., Hellgren, E.C., Leslie, D.M., Jr., and Hemphill, J., Jr. 2005. Dynamics of a recolonizing population of black bears in the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33: 1342-1351.
Baruch-Mordo S., Wilson, K.R., Lewis, D.L., Broderick, J., Mao, J.S., and Breck, S.W. 2014. Stochasticity in natural forage production affects use of urban areas by black bears: implications to management of human-bear conflicts. PloS ONE 9(1).
Beck, T.D.I. 1991. Black bears of west-central Colorado. Technical Publication No. 39. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
Beecham, J.J., and Rohlman, J. 1994. A shadow in the forest. Idaho’s black bear. University of Idaho Press, Moscow, Idaho, USA.
Belant, J.L., Etter, D.R., Mayhew, S.L., Visser, L.G., and Friedrich, P.D. 2011. Improving large scale mark–recapture estimates for American black bear populations. Ursus 22: 9–23.
Benson, J.F., and Chamberlain, M.J. 2006. Food habits of Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus luteolus) in two subpopulations of the Tensas River Basin. American Midland Naturalist 156: 118-127.
Benson, J.F., and Chamberlain, M.J. 2007. Space use, survival, movements, and reproduction of reintroduced Louisiana black bears. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 2393-2403.
Beringer, J., Seibert, S. G., Reagan, S., Brody, A. J., Pelton, M. R. and Vangilder, L. D. 1998. The influence of a small sanctuary on survival rates of black bears in North Carolina. Journal of Wildlife Management 62: 727-734.
Bertram, M.R., and Vivion, M.T. 2002. Black bear monitoring in eastern interior Alaska. Ursus 13: 69-77.
Bierwagen, B.G., Theobald, D.M., Pyke, C.R., Choate, A., Groth, P., Thomas, J.V., and Morefield, P. 2010. National housing and impervious surface scenarios for integrated climate impact assessment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (USA) 107: 20887–20892.
Bowker, B. and Jacobson, T. 1995. Louisiana black bear Ursus americanus luteolus recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Widlife Service, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Bridges, A.S., Vaughan, M.R., and Fox, J.A. 2011. Reproductive ecology of American black bears in the Alleghany Mountains of Virginia, USA. Journal of Wildlife Management 75: 1137-1144.
Cardoza, J.E. 1976. The history and status of the black bear in Massachusetts and adjacent New England states. Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife Research Bulletin 18, Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Project W35R, Job VI-2, Westborough, Massachusetts, USA.
Chaulk, K., Bondrup-Nielsen, S., and Harrington, F. 2005. Black bear, Ursus americanus, ecology on the northeast coast of Labrador. Canadian Field-Naturalist 119: 164-174.
Clark, J. D., Huber, D. and Servheen, C. 2002. Bear reintroductions: Lessons and challenges. Ursus 13: 335-345.
Costello, C.M., Jones, D.E., Inman, R.M., Inman, K.H., Thompson, B.C., and Quigley, H.B. 2003. Relationship of variable mast production to American black bear reproductive parameters in New Mexico. Ursus 14: 1-16.
Côté, S. D. 2005. Extirpation of a large black bear population by introduced white-tailed deer. Conservation Biology 19: 1668-1671.
Csiki, I., Lam, C., Key, A., Coulter, E., Clark, J.D., Pace III, R.M., Smith, K.G., Rhoads., D.D. 2003. Genetic variation in black bears in Arkansas and Louisiana using microsatellite DNA markers. Journal of Mammalogy 84: 691-701.
Davis, H., Hamilton, A.N., Harestad, A.S., and Weir, R.D. 2012. Longevity and reuse of black bear dens in managed forests of coastal British Columbia. Journal of Wildlife Management 76: 523-527.
Delfín-Alfonso, C.A., López-González, C.A., and Equihua, M. 2012. Potential distribution of American black bears in northwest Mexico and implications for their conservation. Ursus 23: 65-77.
Ditmer, M.A., Garshelis, D.L., Noyce, K.V., Haveles, A.W. and Fieberg, J.R. 2015. Are American black bears in an agricultural landscape being sustained by crops? Journal of Mammalogy 26: 40-52.
Dixon, J. D., Oli, M. K., Wooten, M. C., Eason, T. H. M. J. W. and Paetkau, D. 2006. Effectiveness of a regional corridor in connecting two Florida black bear populations. Conservation Biology 20: 155-162.
Doan-Crider, D. L. 2003. Movements and spaciotemporal variation in relation to food productivity and distribution, and population dynamics of the Mexican black bear in the Serranias Burro, Coahuila, Mexico. Ph.D. Thesis, Texas A&M University-Kingsville.
Doan Crider, D. L. and Hellgren, E. C. 1996. Population characteristics and winter ecology of black bears in Coahuila, Mexico. Journal of Wildlife Management 60: 398-407.
Dreher, B.P., Winterstein, S.R., Scribner, K.M., Lukacs, P.M., Etter, D.R., Rosa, G.J.M., Lopez, V.A., Libants, S., and Filcek, K.B. 2007. Noninvasive estimation of black bear abundance incorporating genotyping errors and harvested bear. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 2684-2693.
Drewry, M.J., van Manen, F.T. and Ruth, D.M. 2012. Density and genetic structure of black bears in coastal South Carolina. Journal of Wildlife Management 77: 153-164.
Faries, K.M., Kristensen, T.V, Beringer, J., Clark, J.D., White, D., Jr., and Eggert, L.S. 2013. Origins and genetic structure of black bears in the Interior Highlands of North America. Journal of Mammalogy 94: 369-377.
Fieberg J.R., Shertzer, K.W., Conn, P.B., Noyce, K.V., and Garshelis, D.L. 2010. Integrated population modeling of black bears in Minnesota: Implications for monitoring and management. PLoS ONE 5(8).
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. 2012. Florida black bear management plan. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.
Fuller, D. 2015. Removal of the Louisiana black bear from the federal list of endangered and threatened wildlife and removal of similarity-of-appearance protections for the American black bear; proposed rule. Federal Register 80(98): 29394–29429.
Garshelis, D.L. 1994. Density dependent population regulation of black bears. In: M. Taylor (ed.), Density dependent regulation of North American bears, pp. 3-14. International Conference on Bear Research and Management Monograph Series 3.
Garshelis, D.L., and Hellgren, E.C. 1994. Variation in reproductive biology of male black bears. Journal of Mammalogy 75: 175-188.
Garshelis, D.L. and Hristienko H. 2006. State and provincial estimates of American black bear numbers versus assessments of population trend. Ursus 17: 1-7.
Garshelis, D.L., and Noyce, K.V. 2006. Discerning biases in a large scale mark–recapture population estimate for black bears. Journal of Wildlife Management 70: 1634–1643.
Garshelis, D.L., and Pelton, M.R. 1981. Movements of black bears in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Journal of Wildlife Management 45: 912–925.
Garshelis, D.L., and Visser, L.G. 1997. Enumerating megapopulations of wild bears with an ingested biomarker. Journal of Wildlife Management 61: 466-480.
Goldstein, I. 2006. Programa de Investigación y Conservación del Oso Andino de Wildlife Conservation Society Andes del Norte. Portal Informativo sobre el Programa de Investigación y Conservación del Oso Andino de WCS Andes del Norte. Mérida, Parque Tecnológico Universidad de los Andes.
Graber, D.M. 1990. Winter behavior of black bears in the Sierra Nevada, California. International Conference on Bear Research and Management 8: 269–272.
Hall, B., Motzkin, G., Foster, D.R., Syfert, M., and Burk, J. 2002. Three hundred years of forest and land-use change in Massachusetts, USA. Journal of Biogeography 29: 1319–1335.
Hall, E.R. 1981. The mammals of North America. Second edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Hellgren, E.C., and Vaughan, M.R. 1987. Home range and movements of winter-active black bears in the Great Dismal Swamp. International Conference on Bear Research and Management 7: 227–234.
Hellgren, E. C., Onorato, D. P. and Skiles, J. R. 2005. Dynamics of a black bear population within a desert metapopulation. Biological Conservation 122: 131-140.
Hightower, D.A., Wagner, R.O., Pace III, R.M. 2002. Denning ecology of female American black bears in south central Louisiana. Ursus 13: 11-17.
Hostetler, J.A., McCown, J.W., Garrison, E.P., Neils, A.M., Barrett, M.A., Sunquist, M.E., Simek, S.L., and Oli, M.K. 2009. Demographic consequences of anthropogenic influences: Florida black bears in north-central Florida. Biological Conservation 142: 2456–2463.
Howe, E.J., Obbard, M.E., and Kyle, C.J. 2013. Combining data from 43 standardized surveys to estimate densities of female American black bears by spatially explicit capture–recapture. Population Ecology 55: 595–607.
Howe, E.J., Obbard, M.E., Black, R., and Wall, L.L. 2010. Do public complaints reflect trends in human–bear conflict? Ursus: 131–142.
Howe, E.J., Obbard, M.W., and Schaefer, J.A. 2007. Extirpation risk of an isolated black bear population under different management scenarios. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 603-612.
Hristienko, H. and McDonald, J.E., Jr. 2007. Going into the 21st century: a perspective on trends and controversies in the management of the American black bear. Ursus 18: 72–88.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 April 2017).
Jonkel, C.J., and Miller, F.L. 1970. Recent records of black bears (Ursus americanus) on the barren grounds of Canada. Journal of Mammalogy 51: 826‒828.
Kaminski, D.J., Comer, C., Garner, N.P., Hung I-K, and Calkins, G. 2013. Using GIS-based, regional extent habitat suitability modeling to identify conservation priority areas: a case study of the Louisiana black bear in east Texas. Journal of Wildlife Management 77: 1639–1649.
Keech, M.A., Taras, B.D., Boudreau,T.A., and Boertje, R.D. 2014. Black bear population reduction and recovery in western interior Alaska. Wildlife Society Bulletin 38: 71-77.
Kennedy, M.L., Kennedy, P.K., Bogan, M.A., and Waits, J.L. 2002. Taxonomic assessment of the black bear (Ursus americanus) in the eastern United States. Southwestern Naturalist 47: 335‒347.
Lackey, C.W., Beckmann, J.P., and Sedinger, J. 2013. Bear historical ranges revisited: documenting the increase of a once-extirpated population in Nevada. Journal of Wildlife Management 77: 812–820.
Laliberte, A.S., and Ripple, W.J. 2003. Wildlife encounters by Lewis and Clark: a spatial analysis of interactions between Native Americans and wildlife. BioScience 53: 994–1003.
Larkin, J. L., Maehr, D. S., Orlando, M. A., Hoctor, T. S. and Whitney, K. 2004. Landscape linkages and conservation planning for the black bear in west-central Florida. Animal Conservation 7: 23-34.
Laufenberg, J.S., and Clark, J.D. 2014. Population viability and connectivity of the Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus). U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report.
Mattson, D.J., Herrero, S., and Merrill, T. 2005. Are black bears a factor in the restoration of North American grizzly bear populations? Ursus 16: 11-30.
McCall, B.S., Mitchell, M.S., Schwartz, M.K., Hatden, J., Cushman, S.A., Zager, P., and Kasworm, W. 2013. Combined use of mark-recapture and genetic analyses reveals response of a black bear population to changes in food productivity. Journal of Wildlife Management 77: 1572–1582.
McShea, W.J., Healy, W.M., Devers, P., Fearer, T., Koch, F.H., Stauffer, D., and Waldon, J. 2007. Forestry matters: decline of oaks will impact wildlife in hardwood forests. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 1717–1728.
McTaggart Cowan, I. 1938. Geographic distribution of color phases of the red fox and black bear in the Pacific Northwest. Journal of Mammalogy 19: 202–206.
Miller, S. D. 1990. Population management of bears in North America. International Conference on Bear Research and Management 8: 357-373.
Miller, S.D., White, G.C., Sellers, R.A., Reynolds, H.V., Schoen, J.W., Titus, K., Barnes, V.G., Jr., Smith, R.B., Nelson, R.R., Ballard, W.B. and Schwartz, C.C. 1997. Brown and black bear density estimation in Alaska using radiotelemetry and replicated mark-resight techniques. Wildlife Monographs 133: 1-55.
Moore, J.A., Draheim, H.M., Etter, D., Winterstein, S., and Scribner, K.T. 2014. Application of large-scale parentage analysis for investigating natal dispersal in highly vagile vertebrates: a case study of American black bears (Ursus americanus). PLoS ONE 9(3).
Morin, R.S., Liebhold, A.M., Tobin, P.C., Gottschalk, K.W., and Luzader, E. 2007. Spread of beech bark disease in the eastern United States and its relationship to regional forest composition. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37: 726–736.
Morzillo, A.T., Mertig, A.G., Hollister, J.W., Garner, N., and Liu, J. 2010. Socioeconomic factors affecting local support for black bear recovery strategies. Environmental Management 45: 1299–1311.
Mowat G, Heard, D.C., and Schwarz, C.J. 2013. Predicting grizzly bear density in western North America. PLoS ONE 8(12).
Noyce, K.V., and Garshelis, D.L. 2011. Seasonal migrations of black bears (Ursus americanus): causes and consequences. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65: 823–835.
Obbard, M.E. 1987. Fur grading and pelt identification. In: M. Novak, J. A. Baker, M. E. Obbard, and B. Malloch (eds), Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America, pp. 717–826. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Obbard, M.E., and Howe, E.J. 2008. Demography of black bears in hunted and unhunted areas of the boreal forest of Ontario. Journal of Wildlife Management 72: 869–880.
Obbard, M.E., Howe, E.J., Wall, L.L., Allison, B., Black, R., Davis, P., Dix-Gibson, L., Gatt, M., and Hall, M.N. 2014. Relationships among food availability, harvest, and human–bear conflict at landscape scales in Ontario, Canada. Ursus 25: 98–110.
Onorato, D.P., and Hellgren, E.C. 2001. Black bear at the border: the recolonization of the Trans-Pecos. In: D.S. Maehr, R.F. Noss and J.L. LarkiN (eds), Large mammal restoration: ecological and sociological challenges in the 21st Century, pp. 245-259. Island Press, Washington, D.C., USA.
Onorato, D. P., Hellgren, E. C., Van Den Bussche, R. A. and Doan Crider, D. L. 2004. Phylogeographic patterns within a metapopulation of black bears (Ursus americanus) in the American southwest. Journal of Mammalogy 85: 140-147.
Peacock, E., Titus, K., Garshelis, D.L., Peacock, M.M., and Kuc, M. 2011. Mark-recapture using tetracycline and genetics reveal record-high bear density. Journal of Wildlife Management 75: 1513–1520.
Pelton, M.R. 1991. Black bears in the southeast: to list or not to list? Eastern Workshop on Black Bear Research and Management 10: 155–161.
Pelton, M. R. 2003. Black bear (Ursus americanus). In: G. A. Feldhamer, B. C Thompson and J. A. Chapman (eds), Wild mammals of North America: biology, management, and conservation, pp. 547-555. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Pelton, M. R. and Van Manen, F. T. 1997. Status of black bears in the southeastern United States. In: D. F. Williamson and A. L. Gaski (eds), Proceedings of the second international symposium on the trade in bear parts, pp. 31-44. TRAFFIC USA, Washington, DC, USA.
Pelton, M. R., Coley, A. B., Eason, T. H., Doan, D. L., Martinez, Pederson, J. A., van Manen, F. T. and Weaver, K. M. 1999. American black bear conservation action plan. In: C. Servheen, S. Herrero, and B. Peyton (eds), Bears. Status survey and conservation action plan, pp. 144-146. IUCN/SSC Bear and Polar Bear Specialist Groups, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Puckett, E.E., Etter, P.D., Johnson, E.A., and Eggert, L.S. 2015. Phylogeographic analyses of American black bears (Ursus americanus) suggest four glacial refugia and complex patterns of postglacial admixture. . Molecular Biology and EvolutioN 32: 2338–2350.
Puckett, E.E., Kristensen, T.V., Wilton, C.M., Lyda, S.B., Noyce, K.V., Holahan, P.M., Leslie, D.M. , Jr., Beringer, J., Belant, J.L., White, D., Jr., and Eggert, L.S. 2014. Influence of drift and admixture on population structure of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Central Interior Highlands, USA, 50 years after translocation. Molecular Ecology 23: 2414–2427.
Raybourne, J.W. 1987. The black bear: home in the highlands. In: H. Kallman, C. P. Agee, G. R. Goforth, and J. P. Linduska (eds), Restoring America’s Wildlife 1937–1987. The first 50 years of the federal aid in wildlife restoration (Pittman-Robertson) act., U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. USA.
Reynolds-Hogland, M.J., Pacifici, L.B., and Mitchell, M.S. 2001. Linking resources with demography to understand resource limitation for bears. Journal of Applied Ecology 44: 1166–1175.
Ritland, K., Newton, C. and Marshall, H. D. 2001. Inheritance and population structure of the white-phased "Kermode" black bear. Current Biology 11: 1468-1472.
Rojas-Martínez, A.E., and Juárez-Casillas, L.A. 2013. First record of American black bear (Ursus americanus) from Hidalgo, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 84: 1018-1021.
Rounds, R.C. 1987. Distribution and analysis of colourmorphs of the black bear (Ursus americanus). Journal of Biogeography 14: 521–538.
Ryan, C.W., Pack, J.C., Igo, W.K., and Billings, A. 2007. Influence of mast production on black bear non-hunting mortalities in West Virginia. Ursus 18: 46–53.
Scheick, B.K., and McCown, W. 2014. Geographic distribution of American black bears in North America. Ursus 25: 24–33.
Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales and Pesca. 1999. Programa de Conservación de la Vida Silvestre y Diversificación Productive en el Sector Rural. Impresora Grafica Publicitaria., Distrito Federal, Mexico.
Smith, K.G., Clark, J.D., and Gipson, P.S. 1991. History of black bears in Arkansas: over-exploitation, near elimination, and successful reintroduction. Eastern Workshop on Black Bear Research and Management 10: 5-14.
Sobey, D.G. 2007. An analysis of the historical records for the native mammalian fauna of Prince Edward Island. Canadian Field-Naturalist 121: 384–396.
Spady, T.J., Lindburg, D.J. and Durant, B.S. 2007. Evolution of reproductive seasonality in bears. Mammal Review 37(1): 21-53.
Spencer, R.D., Beausoleil, R.A., and Martorello, D.A. 2007. How agencies respond to human–black bear conflicts: a survey of wildlife agencies in North America. . Ursus 18: 217–229.
Thompson, J.R., Carpenter, D.N., Cogbill C.V., and Foster, D.R. 2013. Four centuries of change in northeastern United States forests. PloS ONE 8(9).
Treves, A., Wallace, R.B. and White, S. 2009. Participatory planning of interventions to mitigate human-wildlife conflicts. Conservation Biology 23(6): 1577-1587.
Unger, D.E., Cox, J.J., Harris, H.B., Larkin, J.L., Augustine, B., Dobey, S., Guthrie, J.M., Hast, J.T., Jensen, R., Murphy, S., Plaxico, J., and Maehr, D.S. 2013. History and current status of the black bear in Kentucky. Northeastern Naturalist 20: 289–308.
van Manen, F.T., McCollister, M.F., Nicholson, J.M., Thompson, L.M., Kindall J.L., and Jones, M.D. 2012. Short-Term Impacts of a 4-Lane Highway on American Black Bears in Eastern North Carolina. Wildlife Monographs 181: 1–35.
Vaughan, M. R. 2002. Oak trees, acorns, and bears. In: W. J. McShea, and W. M. Healy (eds), Oak forest ecosystems: ecology and management for wildlife, pp. 224-240. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Veitch, A. M. and Harrington, F. H. 1996. Brown bears, black bears, and humans in northern Labrador: an historical perspective and outlook to the future. Journal of Wildlife Research 1: 244-249.
Waller, B.W., Belant, J.L., Young, B.W., Leopold, B.D., and Simek, S.L. 2012. Denning chronology and den characteristics of American black bears in Mississippi. Ursus 23 23: 6-11.
Wear, B.J., Eastridge, R., and Clark, J.D. 2005. Factors affecting settling, survival, and viability of black bears reintroduced to Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33: 1363–1374.
White, T.H., Jr., Bowman, J.L., Jacobson, H.A., Leopold, B.D., and Smith, W.P. 2001. Forest management and female black bear denning. Journal of Wildlife Management 65: 34–40.
Williamson, D. F. 2002. In the black. Status, management, and trade of the American black bear (Ursus americanus) in North America, North America, World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, USA.
Wilton, C.M., Belant, J.L., and Beringer, J. 2014. Distribution of American black bear occurrences and human–bear incidents in Missouri. Ursus 25: 53–60.
Wooding, J.B., and Hardisky, T.S. 1992. Denning by black bears in northcentral Florida. Journal of Mammalogy 73: 895–898.
Wooding, J.B., and Maddrey, R.C. 1994. Impacts of roads on black bears. Eastern Workshop on Black Bear Research and Management 12: 124-129.
|Citation:||Garshelis, D.L., Scheick, B.K., Doan-Crider, D.L., Beecham, J.J. & Obbard, M.E. 2016. Ursus americanus (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T41687A114251609.Downloaded on 22 June 2018.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|