Arctonyx collaris 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Mustelidae

Scientific Name: Arctonyx collaris
Species Authority: F.G. Cuvier, 1825
Common Name(s):
English Hog Badger
Arctonyx annaeus Thomas, 1921
Arctonyx dictator Thomas, 1910
Taxonomic Notes: Synonyms (Wozencraft 2005): isonyx Horsfield, 1856; taraiyensis (Gray, 1863); taxoides (Blyth, 1853); albogularis (Blyth, 1853); incultus Thomas, 1922; obscurus (Milne-Edwards, 1871); orestes Thomas, 1911; consui Pocock 1940; dictator Thomas, 1910; annaeus Thomas, 1921; hoevenii (Hubrecht, 1891); leucolaemus (Milne-Edwards, 1867); and milne-edwardsii Lönnberg, 1923.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Timmins, R.J., Long, B., Duckworth, J.W., Wang Ying-Xiang & Than Zaw
Reviewer(s): Belant, J. (Small Carnivore Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
This species is listed as Near Threatened as it is undergoing a population decline but globally this is not believed to be at a rate sufficient to qualify for A2cd (i.e.<30% over 3 generations) at this time. Even though it is widespread, it is severely threatened in some areas (Lao, Viet Nam, southeastern China and perhaps Myanmar) by exploitation, which occurs at high levels, and field status surveys reveal that the species is now occurring only patchily and overall rather rarely in these countries. More research and monitoring particularly in northeast India, Cambodia and Myanmar is needed to quantitatively determine the affect of exploitation on the population. This species should be periodically reassessed for the Red List in light of ongoing threats and uncertainty about range-wide levels of exploitation and the effects these are having on wild populations.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The hog badger occurs in Central to Southeast Asia. It is found in Mongolia, India (Sikkim, Terai, Assam, Arunacha Pradesh), throughout southern China, Indochina (Viet Nam, Lao PDR and Cambodia), Myanmar, in Indonesia (Sumatra), throughout Thailand and possibly in Perak, Malaysia (Lekagul and McNeely 1977; Duckworth 1997; Pocock 1941; Holden 2006; Roberton et al. in prep.; Than Zaw et al. in press). There is one isolated record in eastern Mongolia (Aimak Dornod) (Stubbe et al. 1998). According to Holden (2006) in Sumatra the hog badger appears to occur primarily above 2,000 m with one record at 700 m, and historical records also indicate a montane range (Miller 1942). Corbet and Hill's (1992) map suggest that on Sumatra the species is restricted to the southern part of the island, whereas, in fact, individuals have been found in many mountainous locations in the north as well (van Strien 2001).

In Lao PDR, most recent records are from the central part of the country, with some from the north, although historic records come also from the south (Duckworth 1997, Duckworth et al. 1999). There are recent indirect reports (unsubstantiated villager reports) from many survey areas in Lao PDR, but few documented records (R.J. Timmins and J.W. Duckworth pers. comm. 2006); in aggregate, these suggest that this species was present in the recent past, but has more or less been hunted out from quite wide areas (J.W. Duckworth in litt. 2006). Deuve (1972) considered that the species occurred in the southern region of Lao PDR, listing several lowland sites; however, Deuve’s Lao range information is often faulty (e.g. Timmins and Duckworth 1999), so this cannot be taken as complete confirmation the animal was formerly widespread in Lao lowlands. All seven records in 1992-1996 were from in and around the Nam Theun catchment at sites above 500 m (Duckworth 1997), while both historical sites listed by Delacour (1940) are in mountainous areas: Phongsali and the Bolaven Plateau. The post-1996 records are also from hills and mountains (Duckworth et al. 1999).
Countries occurrence:
Bhutan; Cambodia; China; India (Assam); Indonesia (Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Mongolia; Myanmar; Thailand; Viet Nam
Upper elevation limit (metres): 3500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: opulation trends for the hog badger may vary across its range. In Lao PDR, this species can be locally common, as indicated by its presence during most surveys in and around the Nam Theun catchment (Duckworth et al. 1999). The lack of sightings elsewhere indicates that this species is either naturally patchy in abundance or under widespread decline (Duckworth et al. 1999). Occurrence in Myanmar is also patchy without obvious natural explantion (Than Zaw et al. in press). In Thailand, it is fairly common and found in both the north and the south (B. Kanchanaska pers. comm.). It is also very common in the high montane zone of Sumatra (Holden 2006), and in southwestern and eastern Cambodia (J. L. Walston and R. J. Timmins pers. comm.). In India, this species is fairly common in Terai. The hog badger is historically widespread in Viet Nam, but sightings seem to be declining (Roberton et al. in prep.).
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The hog badger is active by day, terrestrial, and not very wary of humans (Duckworth et al. 1999). This species if
often referred to as nocturnal, however, analysis of numerous camera-trap pictures from Myanmar show no peak at either day or night; it can be active at any time (Than Zaw et al. in press). It is usually found in forested areas as high as 3,500 m, and it feeds on “tubers, roots, earthworms, insects, and other small living creatures” (Lekagul and McNeely 1977). Wang and Fuller (2003) conducted a study on the food habits of this species in a rural agricultural area of southeastern China (Taohong Village, Jiangxi Province), and found that this species ate more mammals and gastropods than other species studied. Little is known about its breeding habits, though litter size seems to be two to three young, and individuals have lived up to seven years in captivity (Lekagul and McNeely 1977).

In Lao PDR, the hog badger is found in forested areas, and mainly now on hills and mountains (Duckworth et al. 1999), however, this altitudinal restriction may be a secondary effect of overhunting. In contrast to Lao PDR, this species in Cambodia occurs in level lowlands, in mosaics of deciduous and semi-evergreen forests, which is a further line of supposition that its current Lao distribution reflects anthropogenic restriction.

In India, this species is fairly common within grassland habitats of Terai, as well as in dense, tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, and tall grassland -woodland mosaic. In Thailand it is also found in rubber plantations adjacent to forests (B. Kanchanaska pers. comm.). In Myanmar, the hog badger has been recorded in forest including bamboo stands under tree cover (Than Zaw et al. in press), and it is also found in limestone forests in Viet Nam (Roberton et al. in prep.). It mainly occurs in upper montane forest in Sumatra (Holden 2006).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Major threats to the hog badger are hunting by dogs as well as snaring, primarily for human consumption and as bycatch. In Lao, the palatability of hog badger varies among ethnic groups, with some groups disliking the taste, whereas groups in parts of the Nam Theun basin (and perhaps widely elsewhere) seek the species specifically for food (J. Baker pers. comm. and J. Chamberlain per. comm. in Duckworth et al. 1999). This species is also eaten by some groups in India, and is hunted as well as farmed for food in China (M.W.N. Lao pers. comm.). Field surveys in China generated very few records of wild animals in Southeastern China (M.W.N. Lao pers. comm.), and the species is also hunted at the local level in Viet Nam (Roberton et al. in prep.). In all of Indochina, this species is threatened by the use of hunting dogs (J. Baker pers. comm. 1999).

The snaring intensity in Cambodia is considerably lower than that in Lao PDR and Viet Nam, and the relatively larger number of recent records from Cambodia than from Viet Nam and Lao PDR is strong indirect evidence that trapping levels are driving reductions in these latter countries. In Viet Nam and presumably elsewhere, gun-hunting poses another threat to the species (Timmins et al. 1999).

While threats similar to those in Lao PDR and Viet Nam are known to exist in Thailand, it is generally thought that the hunting is operating at much lower intensities and are therefore not as serious. In Sumatra as well, the threats are minimal, because the zone of occurrence is above where the majority of hunting takes place (Holden 2006)

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Throughout its range, this species is found in a number of protected areas. In Thailand this species is protected by law, and in India this species is protected under the highest level of protection. It is not protected in Viet Nam or Cambodia and is the largest-bodied unprotected mammal, except for Euraisan Wild Hog Sus scrofa, in Myanmar (Than Zaw et al. in press). The China Red List has listed the hog badger as Vulnerable under C1 and A2c.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Marginal  
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.6. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
suitability: Suitable  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.3. Sub-national level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.3. Sub-national level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Corbet, G.B. and Hill, J.E. 1992. Mammals of the Indo-Malayan Region: a Systematic Review. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Delacour, J. 1940. Liste provisoire des mammifères de l'Indochine française. Mammalia 4: 20-29, 46-58.

Deuve, J. 1972. Les mammiferes du Laos. Ministry of Education, Laos.

Duckworth, J.W. 1997. Small carnivores in Laos: a status review with notes on ecology, behaviour and conservation. Small Carnivore Conservation 16: 1–21.

Duckworth, J.W., Salter, R.E. and Khounbline, K. 1999. Wildlife in Lao PDR: 1999 Status Report. IUCN, Vientiane, Laos.

Holden, J. 2006. Small carnivores in central Sumatra. Small Carnivore Conservation 34/35: 35-38.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Lekagul, B. and McNeely, J.A. 1988. Mammals of Thailand. Association for the Conservation of Wildlife, Bangkok, Thailand.

Miller, G. S. 1942. Zoological results of the George Vanderbilt Sumatran Expedition, 1936-1939: Part V.-Mammals collected by F. A. Ulmer, Jr. on Sumatra and Nias. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 94: 107-165.

Pocock, R.I. 1941. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Taylor & Francis, Ltd., London, UK.

Stubbe, M., Stubbe, A., Ebersbach, H., Samjaa, R. and Doržraa, O. 1998. Die Dachse (Melinae/Mustelidae) der Mongolei. Beiträge zur Jagd- und Wildforschung 23: 257-262.

Than Zaw, Saw Htun, Saw Htoo Tha Po, Myint Maung, Lynam, A.J., Kyaw Thinn Latt and Duckworth, J.W. 2008. Status and distribution of small carnivores in Myanmar. Small Carnivore Conservation 38: 2–28.

Timmins, R.J. and Duckworth, J.W. 1999. Status and conservation of Douc Langurs (Pygathrix nemaeus) in Laos. International Journal of Primatology 20(4): 469 – 489.

Timmins, R.J., Do Tuoc, Trinh Viet Cuong and Hendrichsen, D.K. 1999. A preliminary assessment of the conservation importance and conservation priorities of the Phong Nha-Ke Bang proposed National Park, Quang Binh Province, Vietnam. Fauna and Flora International-Indochina Programme, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Van Strien, N.J. 2001. Indoaustralian mammals. A taxonomic and faunistic reference and atlas. ETI, Amsterdam.

Vevers, G. M. and Pinner, E. 1948. Animals of the U.S.S.R. W. Heinemann, London, UK.

Wang, H. and Fuller, T.H. 2003. Food habits of four sympatric carnivores in southeastern China. Mammalia 67: 513-519.

Wilson, D.E. and Reeder, D.M. 1993. Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Wozencraft, W.C. 2005. Order Carnivora. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Third Edition, pp. 532-628. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Citation: Timmins, R.J., Long, B., Duckworth, J.W., Wang Ying-Xiang & Than Zaw. 2008. Arctonyx collaris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T41625A10519227. . Downloaded on 31 May 2016.
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