|Scientific Name:||Herpestes semitorquatus|
|Species Authority:||Gray, 1846|
Urva semitorquata Gray, 1846
|Taxonomic Notes:||Collared Mongoose Herpestes semitorquatus has been suggested to be conspecific with Short-tailed Mongoose H. brachyurus but has been recognised as a valid species by all major authors in recent decades. Genetic and morphological information (excepting coat colour, which is probably in this case of limited value as a phylogenetic signal) suggests that the mongooses on Palawan and the Calamian islands (Philippines), typically included in Short-tailed Mongoose, are in fact a form of Collared Mongoose (Veron et al. 2015); this view is tentatively followed here.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Mathai, J., Hearn, A., Brodie, J., Wilting, A., Duckworth, J.W., Ross, J., Holden, J., Gemita, E. & Hon, J.|
|Contributor(s):||Azlan J., M., Jennings, A., Veron, G., Pratje, P.H. & Mo�brucker, A.M.|
Collared Mongoose is restricted to the islands of Borneo, Sumatra and (dependent upon taxonomic treatment) the Palawan group in the Philippines. Given the scarcity of information on its status, ecological requirements, past declines and level of adaptability to modified habitat, the species was listed as Data Deficient in 2008. In recent years, there is ample evidence suggesting the species is widely distributed throughout Borneo over a wide altitudinal range, occurs in many protected areas, and is tolerant to some degree of habitat modification such as selective logging, but probably does not tolerate deforestation. Thus, forest loss is taken as a baseline surrogate for population trend. Based on a GIS exercise conducted as part of this assessment, about 16% of potential suitable habitat for the species was lost in Borneo between 2000 and 2010 (mainly through unsustainable logging and conversion to monoculture plantations), suggesting that the species is declining on the island at about 22% per three generations (taken as about 14 years), a rate consistent with listing as Near Threatened. This is expected to continue over the next three generations. There are rather few records from Sumatra. The GIS exercise estimated a 35% loss of potential suitable habitat in Sumatra between 2000 and 2010, implying a decline of about 49% in three generations which would justify, over three generations, an island-specific Vulnerable listing under Criterion A2c (and on future prospects, A3c and A4c). Based on the rate of habitat loss for the species in Borneo and Sumatra, weighted according to relative area on each (weighted average = 27%), through the threats of unsustainable logging, conversion of natural forest to monoculture plantations, expansion of human settlements and forest fires across its range, a global listing of Near Threatened based on past and future rates of decline is justified. There are two further complications in assessing this species. It has been suggested that the Sumatran population might have been introduced, in which case it would be irrelevant to the categorisation. It has also been suggested that the mongooses of the Philippines, previously considered conspecific with Short-tailed Mongoose Herpestes brachyurus, are better placed within Collared Mongoose (Veron et al. 2015). Even so, the percentage of the global population on Palawan is likely to be so small that it will not affect this species’ assessment under criterion A.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Collared Mongoose is restricted to the islands of Borneo, Sumatra and (dependent upon taxonomic arrangement) the Palawan group in the Philippines. On Borneo, it has been detected in Sabah and Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo); it is presumed to occur in Brunei Darussalam although no records have been traced. The full elevational range of records from Borneo extends from 10 m asl (Cheyne et al. 2010) to 1,400 m asl (J. Ross pers. comm. 2014), although on Malaysian Borneo, it is thought to be more common between 100 and 500 m asl (J. Ross unpublished data, J. Mathai unpublished data). It has been recorded in a wide range of habitats including primary and logged lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (Wells et al. 2005, Wilting et al. 2010), high-elevation forest (Davis 1958, J. Ross pers. comm. 2014), burnt forest (Mathai et al. 2010ab, J. Mathai unpublished data) and occasionally in peat swamp forest (Cheyne et al. 2010) and mixed secondary forest-acacia plantation mosaics (Belden et al. 2007). Records from Sumatra are relatively few; they are from localities spread widely across the island; those with altitudes are mainly from lowland forest below 300 m asl, although there are records at 666 m asl (Pusparini and Sibarani 2014) and at 915 m asl (G. Fredriksson pers. comm. 2015).|
In Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, Collared Mongoose has been recorded from the protected areas of Mulu National Park and Pulong Tau National Park, the proposed protected area of Hose Mountains (Brodie et al. in prep.), logged forests in Upper Baram (Mathai et al. 2010ab) and Bintulu division (J. Hon pers. comm. 2014), burnt forests in Upper Baram (Mathai et al. 2010ab) and very occasionally in mixed secondary forest-acacia plantation mosaics (Belden et al. 2007). However, this species seems never to have been recorded from the coastal regions, mangroves or peat swamps of Sarawak (Hon et al. in prep.). In Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, this species has been recorded from the protected areas of Kinabalu Park (Wells et al. 2005), Crocker Range National Park (from where comes the highest elevational record to date, at 1,400 m asl; J. Ross pers. comm. 2014), Maliau Basin Conservation Area (Brodie and Giordano 2010) and the Ulu Padas Forest Reserve (Brodie in prep.). Most of these records are from lowland and upland primary forests. This species has also been recorded in the sustainably logged forest of Deramakot Forest Reserve (Wilting et al. 2010) and to a lesser extent in the more disturbed forest reserves of Tangkulap and Segaliud Lokan (A. Wilting pers. comm. 2014). In Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) this species has been recorded from scattered but widespread localities including Sanggau, Pontianak, Gunung Palung and Kendawangan, all in West Kalimantan; Kumai in Central Kalimantan; and Balikpapan and Kutai in East Kalimantan (in Medway 1965). Most of these records are from lowland forests. This species has also been recorded from peat swamp forest in Sebangau (Cheyne et al. 2010) and from logged-over secondary forest in the Schwaner Mountains (Samejima and Semiadi 2012), both in Central Kalimantan.
The distribution on Sumatra is less clear. It has even been suggested that this species was perhaps introduced to the island (Veron et al. 2015); the precautionary stance is taken here of considering Sumatra as part of the native range. Two specimens, including the holotype of H. s. uniformis, were collected from West Sumatra adjacent to Gunung Paseman in 1917 (Robinson and Kloss 1919) and Jentink (1894) documented a specimen from Soekadana, South Sumatra. More recently (in 2010), a camera-trap image of the species was recorded in mixed lowland secondary forest with bamboo, in the Harapan Rainforest, Jambi province, east Sumatra (Ross et al. 2012). In 2012, two images of the species were recorded in primary forest in Jantho Wildlife Reserve, central Aceh, north Sumatra (Holden and Meijaard 2012). In 2013, the species was detected in selectively logged (more than 10 years previously) secondary forest in Bukit Tigapuluh Landscape, central Sumatra (P.H. Pratje and A.M. Moβbrucker pers. comm. 2014). In Gunung Leuser Landscape, a single camera-trap station photographed the species twice, three weeks apart, at 666 m asl (Pusparini and Sibarani 2014), and in August 2014, this species was video-recorded by camera-trap in Batang Toru, north Sumatra, at 915 m asl (G. Fredriksson pers. comm. 2015). A further possible record of the species is that of a singleton in a wildlife market in Medan between 1997 and 2001 (Shepherd et al. 2004).
As part of this assessment, a GIS exercise was conducted applying data from the Borneo Carnivore Symposium (June 2011) for which a habitat suitability analysis (incorporating a MaxEnt analysis and a respondent opinion assessment) was conducted (Hon et al. in prep.). This analysis estimated 265,000-315,000 km2 of broadly suitable habitat for the species across its range (roughly 250,000 km2 in Borneo and between 15,000 and 65,000 km2 in Sumatra, comprising mainly lowland and upland interior forest). To estimate potential habitat loss, the Miettinen et al. (2011) dataset of land-cover change between 2000 and 2010 was used. This analysis predicted a loss in suitable land-cover classes of roughly 16% in Borneo and of roughly 35% in Sumatra. The Philippine part of the range (Palawan and Busuanga) was not covered; it is very small compared with Sumatra and Borneo.
Native:Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatera); Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Collared Mongoose populations are particularly poorly known, even compared with other Southeast Asian small carnivores. Although rising camera-trap use has increased the number of localities known to hold the species, it remains difficult to assess population size of unmarked animals based on camera-trap studies alone; the paucity of research on the species also prevents reliable quantitative estimates. This species is widespread in Borneo where it has been detected over a wide altitudinal range in a variety of habitat types. It is thought that in Borneo this species may be more common between elevations of 100 and 500 m asl (J. Ross unpublished data, J. Mathai unpublished data) and may occur less frequently in recently logged forest (J. Brodie pers. comm. 2014) and that, in general, it may occur primarily in less disturbed forest types (A. Wilting pers. comm. 2014). Encounter rates appear to be lower than the regularly camera-trapped and well-documented Short tailed Mongoose Herpestes brachyurus (J. Hon pers. comm. 2014, J. Ross pers. comm. 2014, J. Mathai pers. comm. 2014) although some camera-trap studies have found the reverse (J. Brodie pers. comm. 2014). On Sumatra, there is even less information on the population status of the species, at least in part reflecting the lower survey effort there and the lack of a record-collation process comparable to the Borneo Carnivore Symposium. While it is evidently widespread there, available data suggest a much smaller population than that on Borneo.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The paucity of research on Collared Mongoose means little is known about its habitat preference and ecology. On Borneo, this species has been recorded in a variety of habitats including primary and logged lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (Wells et al. 2005, Wilting et al. 2010), high-elevation forest (Davis 1958, J. Ross pers. comm. 2014), burnt forest (Mathai et al. 2010ab, J. Mathai pers. comm. 2014) and very occasionally in peat swamp forest (Cheyne et al. 2010) (although not in mangrove forest), mixed secondary forest-acacia plantation mosaics (Belden et al. 2007) and mixed mature Albizzia-cacao plantation (Stuebing and Gasis 1989). Hence, this species exhibits some tolerance to disturbed/modified habitat although the preference may be undisturbed forest (A. Wilting pers. comm. 2014).|
The species’ use of recently abandoned or current shifting agriculture and oil palm plantations remains unknown, given the low survey effort in them. The full elevational range of records from Borneo extends from 10 m asl (Cheyne et al. 2010) to 1,400 m asl (J. Ross pers. comm. 2014), although it is thought to be more common between 100 and 500 m asl on Malaysian Borneo (J. Ross pers. comm. 2014; J. Mathai pers. comm. 2014); Jennings and Veron (2011) found most records of the few they traced to be at 300–600 m asl. In Sumatra, most of the rather few records are from below 300 m asl, from both primary and logged forest (e.g., Holden and Meijaard 2012, P.H. Pratje and A.M. Moβbrucker pers. comm. 2014), with one each at 666 m asl (Pusparini and Sibarani 2014) and at 915 m asl (G. Fredriksson pers. comm. 2015). Holden and Meijaard (2012) pointed out that all altitude records on Sumatra then known to them came from below 300 m asl; if this reflected the species' overall altitudinal distribution on the island, it would make it highly threatened there by ongoing forest clearance. However, the subsequent records at higher altitude indicate that it is not confined to the lowlands. But it does seem to be detected only rarely even where found (e.g., that in Batang Toru, north Sumatra, was the only record in about 10,000 camera-trap nights; G. Fredriksson pers. comm. 2015). This suggests the Sumatran population is much smaller than the Bornean population.
There are two colour morphs of the species. The warm-brown morph is the more common of the two on Borneo; in Sabah, it comprised 95% of all Collared Mongoose records in one spatially wide-ranging study (Ross et al. 2012). The few Collared Mongoose records from Sumatra have all been of the orange-red morph (Holden and Meijaard 2012, Pusparini and Sibarani 2014, G. Fredriksson pers. comm. 2015), suggesting a prevalence of this form on the island; it is not known whether the warm-brown morph even occurs on Sumatra. It is likely that the species has been under-recorded both in Borneo and, particularly, Sumatra because of confusion with the similarly coloured Malay Weasel Mustela nudipes (two of the recent Sumatran records were originally submitted as Malay Weasel; J.W. Duckworth pers comm. 2014) or with Short-tailed Mongoose; this latter means that the warm-brown morph might exist in Sumatra but have been hitherto overlooked. Collared Mongoose is mainly ground-dwelling (Payne et al. 1985). It appears more active during the day when observations peak one to two hours before noon and two to three hours after (Cheyne et al. 2010, Hon et al. in prep.). In Deramakot Forest Reserve, Sabah, the species was recorded mainly during the daytime, dusk and dawn, and - once - at night (Wilting et al. 2010, Azlan M. pers. comm. 2014). It is usually detected as singletons (Davis 1958, Belden et al. 2007, Mathai et al. 2010a) although duos have also been observed (Cheyne et al. 2010, Pusparini and Sibarani 2014, J. Mathai pers. comm. 2014). Its diet includes small animals (Payne et al. 1985) including ants, with grass also ingested (Davis 1958). A respondent opinion assessment conducted during the Borneo Carnivore Symposium (June 2011) to assess, among others, tolerance of species to human population, concluded that areas with human population density greater than 70 inhabitants per km2 were not suitable for the species (Hon et al. in prep.). This suggests that unlike Short-tailed Mongoose, Collared Mongoose is not likely to wander into gardens and orchards of villages (and there are indeed few, if any, records from such habitats) and hence, unlikely to be persecuted as a result of direct conflict with humans (Hon et al. in prep.). However, its largely ground-dwelling nature is likely to increase its susceptibility to indiscriminate hunting practices such as nets and snares, which are present in parts of its range (e.g., Mathai et al. 2010a).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||4.7|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||Hunting using various methods, some unselective, occurs across the range of this species and it is no doubt part of the general take. There is no evidence of specific subsistence or trade demand for the species.|
|Major Threat(s):||Deforestation and forest degradation in the lowland and upland forests of Borneo and Sumatra have been extensive through factors including unsustainable logging, conversion of natural forest to monoculture plantations, expansion of human settlements and forest fires. Based on the GIS exercise as part of this assessment (detailed in the section on Range Description), it is predicted that between 2000 and 2010 roughly 16% of potentially suitable land-cover classes for Collared Mongoose were lost in Borneo, and 35% in Sumatra. Although the species shows some tolerance to modified habitat and can presumably persist in selectively logged forest, there is no evidence to show that it can survive in clear-felled forest and oil palm plantations. This species’ use of secondary forest and higher elevations in Borneo, however, imply that it is not immediately threatened on the island. Another possible threat is indiscriminate hunting such as the use of snares and nets. Although it is unlikely that the species will wander into gardens and orchards of villages and get into direct conflict with people, suggesting that there will be only little targeted hunting as a pest, it is still exposed to these indiscriminate hunting methods, which occur deep within some forest-blocks in its range, due to its ground-dwelling nature.|
|Conservation Actions:||Collared Mongoose is not a CITES-listed species (CITES 2014) presumably because it is thought unlikely to feature in international trade. It is found in some protected areas within its range such as Pulong Tau National Park and Mulu National Park in Sarawak (Brodie et al. in prep.); Kinabalu Park (Wells et al. 2005), Crocker Range National Park (J. Ross pers. comm. 2014), and the Maliau Basin Conservation Area (Brodie and Giordano 2010) in Sabah; Sabangau National Park in Kalimantan (Cheyne et al. 2010); and Gunung Leuser National Park and Jantho Wildlife Sanctuary in Sumatra (Holden and Meijaard 2012, Pusparini and Sibarani 2014). However, it is not known how large any of these populations may be or whether any of them are viable. Possible strongholds where conservation efforts should arguably be focused have been identified (Hon et al. in prep.) although population status in these areas remains to be verified. On Malaysian Borneo, the species is listed as ‘Protected’ under the Sarawak Wild Life Protection Ordinance (1998) and the Sabah Wildlife Conservation Enactment (1997), implying limited protection. However, the species is not listed as a protected animal in Brunei under the Brunei Wild Life Protection Act (1978); neither is it protected in Indonesian Borneo or Sumatra under the Appendix of the Government of Republic of Indonesia Regulation No. 7 (1999).|
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|Citation:||Mathai, J., Hearn, A., Brodie, J., Wilting, A., Duckworth, J.W., Ross, J., Holden, J., Gemita, E. & Hon, J. 2015. Herpestes semitorquatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T41616A45208027.Downloaded on 27 June 2017.|
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