Callicebus donacophilus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Pitheciidae

Scientific Name: Callicebus donacophilus (D'Orbigny, 1836)
Common Name(s):
English Bolivian Gray Titi, Bolivian Grey Titi, Bolivian Titi, Bolivian Titi Monkey, Titi Monkey, White-eared Titi, White Eared Titi
Spanish Facafaca
Taxonomic Notes: Kobayashi and Langguth (1999) and van Roosmalen et al. (2002) recognize five species groups – cupreus, donacophilus, moloch, personatus and torquatus. Callicebus donacophilus belongs to the donacophilus group, which according to van Roosmalen et al., (2002), also includes: Callicebus modestus, Callicebus oenanthe, Callicebus olallae and Callicebus pallescens.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Veiga, L.M., Wallace, R.B. & Ferrari, S.F.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
This species is considered Least Concern because of its adaptability and relatively wide range, and because there is no evidence of a decline that would warrant listing in a threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species has a wide distribution that stretches east from the Manique River in Beni, Bolivia, and north into Brazil where Ferrari et al. (2000) confirmed the presence of titis with a greyish pleage in southern Rondônia. It is possible that its range extends as far north as the Serra dos Pacaás Novos. It is found in Bolivia south to the forests around the city of Santa Cruz.
Countries occurrence:
Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Unpublished data from San Miguelito ranch in Santa Cruz provides relative abundance indices of between 0.04 and 0.18 groups (0.12-0.54 individuals) encountered per 10 km of line transect (Wallace and Mercado 2007; WCS, unpubl.).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Although C. donacophilus is found in tropical humid forests, it seems to be restricted to the slightly drier forests of southern Amazonia and is apparently absent from the more humid forests of northern Beni Department (Wallace and Mercado 2007). It also appears reasonably tolerant of habitat disturbance (R. Wallace pers. comm. 2007).

The diet of titi monkeys comprises mainly fruit pulp, leaves, insects and seeds. They form small, pair-bonded, territorial groups and are considered monogamous. They have small home (1.5-30 km) and day ranges (0.5-1.5 km). A study on the behavioural ecology and calling behaviour of C. donacophilus is underway at two sites in forest patches in and on the outskirts of Santa Cruz (K. Dingess pers. comm. to R. Wallace, 2007).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Agricultural activities have resulted in considerable habitat loss around the city of Santa Cruz. Nevertheless, it is one of three primate species that survives within the confines of the city and has been observed on the outskirts of several rural communities (R. Wallace pers. comm. 2007.).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Present in Beni Biosphere Reserve and Amboro National Park in Bolivia (Wallace and Mercado 2007; Martinez and Wallace in press). More information is required regarding the species' eastern distribution, and limits with C. pallescens in the south.
It is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends

Bibliography [top]

Anderson, S. 1997. Mammals of Bolivia: Taxonomy and distribution. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 231: 1–652.

Brown, A. D. and Rumiz, D. I. 1986. Distribucion de los primates en Bolivia. In: M. T. de Mello (ed.), A Primatologia no Brasil, pp. 335-363. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasília, Brazil.

Ferrari S. F., Iwanaga S, Messias, M. R., Ramos E. M., Ramos, P. C. S., da Cruz Neto, E. H. and Coutinho, P. E. G. 2000. Titi monkeys (Callicebus spp., Atelidae: Platyrrhini) in Brazilian state of Rondonia.

Groves C. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Hershkovitz, P. 1988. Origin, speciation, and distribution of South American titi monkeys, genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini). Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140(1): 240-272.

Hershkovitz, P. 1990. Titis, New World monkeys of the genus Callicebus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary taxonomic review. Fieldiana: Zoology 55: 1-109.

Hirsch, A, Dias, L. G., de Oliveira Martins, L., Ferreira Campos, R., Landau, E. C. and Almeida Teixeira Resende, N. 2002. BDGEOPRIM -Database of geo-referenced localities of neotropical primates. Neotropical Primates 10(2): 79-84.

Kobayashi, S. 1995. A phylogenetic study of titi monkeys, genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: I. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.

Kobayashi, S and Langguth, A. 1999. A new species of titi monkeys, Callicebus Thomas, from north-eastern Brazil (Primates, Cebidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 16(2): 531-551.

Martinez, J. and Wallace R. B. 2007. Further Notes on the Distribution of the Bolivian Endemic Titi Monkeys, Callicebus modestus and Callicebus olallae. Neotropical Primates 14(2): 47-54.

Norconk, M. A. 2007. Saki, uakaris, and titi monkeys: behavioral diversity in a radiation of primate seed predators. In: C. J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K. C.MacKinnon, M. Panger and S. K. Bearder (eds), Primates in Perspectives, pp. 123-138. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.

Salazar-Bravo, J.A., Tarifa, T., Aguirre, L.F., Yensen, E. and Yates, T.L. 2003. Revised Checklist of Bolivian Mammals. Occasional Papers, Museum of Texas Tech University 220: 1-28.

Tarifa, T. 1996. Mamiferos. In: P. Ergueta and C. de Morales (eds), Libro rojo de los vertebrados de Bolivia, pp. 165-262. Centro de Datos para la conservacion-Bolivia, La Paz, Bolivia.

Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T. and Mittermeier, R.A. 2002. A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10: 1-52.

Citation: Veiga, L.M., Wallace, R.B. & Ferrari, S.F. 2008. Callicebus donacophilus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T41548A10497668. . Downloaded on 23 June 2018.
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