|Scientific Name:||Aotus vociferans|
|Species Authority:||(Spix, 1823)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||It is doubtful that the current taxonomy provides a true picture of the diversity of the genus Aotus. Ruiz-Herrera et al. (2005) reported that cytogenetic studies have characterized 18 different karyotypes with diploid numbers ranging from 46 to 58 chromosomes. The taxonomy of the night monkeys essentially follows the revision by Hershkovitz (1983), with some modifications for the Colombian and Central American forms.
Reviewing the entire taxonomy and distributions of the night monkeys, Aotus, Ford (1994) carried out multivariate analyses of craniodental measures and pelage patterns and color, and also took into consideration chromosomal data and blood protein variations. Ford (1994) concluded that there was “good support” for just two species north of the Río Amazonas: A. trivirgatus (Humboldt, 1812) east and north of the Rio Negro, and the polymorphic A. vociferans to the west of the Rio Negro. Aotus vociferans, as such, would include all the forms north of the Río Amazonas/Solimões in Brazil (west of the Rio Negro), Peru, Colombia and Ecuador, and in the Chocó, northern Colombia and Colombian Andes, and Panama: brumbacki, lemurinus, griseimembra, and zonalis.
Defler and Bueno (2007) discussed the karyology of the gray-necked night monkeys and reaffirmed the validity of A. brumbacki, A. griseimembra, A. lemurinus, A. trivirgatus, A. vociferans and A. zonalis.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Morales-Jiménez, A.L., Link, A., Cornejo, F. & Stevenson, P.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
This species is listed as Least Concern due to its wide range, presumed large populations, and because there are no major threats believed to be resulting in a significant population decline at present.
|Range Description:||Aotus vociferans occurs north of the Rio Amazonas-Solomões, west from the Rio Negro. It occurs south of the Rio Solimões in a small incursion either side of the mouth and lowermost reaches of the Rio Purus. West it extends into Peru north of the Río Amazonas and Marañón, not extending it would seem right to the Rio Marañón, with a narrow belt along the north of the river being occupied by A. nancymaae (Aquino and Encarnación 1994a). It extends north through the Ecuadorian Amazon into Colombia to the Río Guaviare, probably extending east as far the ríos Negro, Atabapo and Orinoco (Hernández-Camacho and Cooper 1976; Defler 2003, 2004).|
Native:Brazil (Amazonas); Colombia (Colombia (mainland)); Ecuador (Ecuador (mainland)); Peru
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Aquino and Encarnación (1988) estimated a density of 33.0 individuals/km², and Heltne (1977) 7.9 individuals/km² in north-eastern Peru. Aquino and Encarnación (1994b) reviewed population structure and densities for the genus.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Night monkeys typically occur in primary and secondary forest (including disturbed forest and selectively logged forest), seasonally flooded and terra firma, lowland forest, submontane forest (Hernández-Camacho and Cooper 1976; Aquino and Encarnación 1994a; Defler 2003, 2004; Tirira 2007). In Ecuador, this species occurs in humid tropical forest between 200 and 900 m above sea level, and in the Cordillera del Condor, in subtropical forest up to 1,550 m (Tirira 2007). Aquino and Encarnación (1994b) reviewed the habitat and forest preferences of the genus.
Night monkeys are nocturnal: they are most active at dawn and dusk. The only exception is Aotus azarae azarae of the Chaco of southern Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina, which is cathemeral (active during night and day). They are frugivorous; their diet includes fruit, nectar and flowers, leaves, and small animals prey such as insects (Wright 1989; Fernandez-Duque 2007).
They are socially monogamous, living in small groups of an adult pair and offspring of different ages (infant, one or two juveniles and sometimes a subadult. In A. a. azarae, a significant number of adults range alone. They may be subadults that have left their natal groups or older adults which have been evicted from their groups by competitors (Fernandez-Duque and Huntington 2002; Fernandez-Duque 2004). Both sexes disperse. Males care for the infants (carry them) (Rotundo et al. 2002, 2005). Lone adults were observed by Villavicencio Galindo (2003) in northern Colombia. Night monkeys are territorial—groups occupy overlapping territories of 5-18 ha (depending on the species and location) (Wright 1978, 1981; Fernandez-Duque 2007). Wright (1994) and Fernandez-Duque (2007) review the behaviour and ecology of the genus.
Captive male A. lemurinus reach sexual maturity when 2 years old, and captive female A. vociferans and A. nancymaae first breed when 3-4 years old (Dixson 1983; Fernandez-Duque 2007). In the wild, male A. azarae reach adult weight only when about 4 years old, and age at first reproduction is about 5 years of age (Juárez et al. 2003; Fernandez-Duque 2004). Single offspring are the rule. Wright (1985) recorded births between August and February for A. nigriceps in Peru (Manu National Park), and Aquino et al. (1990) indicated a birth season between December and March for A. nancymaae in north-eastern Peru.
Adult male weight average 0.697±.024 kg (n=4, range 0.568-8.0 kg) (Hernández-Camacho and Defler 1985).
There are no known major threats at present. The species was reported as common and widespread in Ecuador and Peru (Aquino and Encarnación 1994a; Tirira 2007).
Large numbers are used in medical research, sometimes illegally, which should be monitored to understand the effect on populations.
The species is confirmed, or may occur, in a number of protected areas:
Amacayacu Natural National Park (293,000 ha) (in range, Defler 2003, 2004)
Cahuinari Natural National Park (575,500 ha) (in range, Defler 2003, 2004)
Serrania de Chiribiquete Natural National Park (1,280,000 ha) (in range, Defler 2003, 2004)
Cordillera de los Picachos Natural National Park (286,600 ha) (in range, Defler 2003, 2004)
Cueva de los Guacharos Natural National Park (9,000 ha) (in range, Defler 2003, 2004)
La Paya Natural National Park (442,000 ha) (Polanco-Ochoa et al. 1999)
Nukak Natural National Reserve (855,000 ha) (in range, Defler 2003, 2004)
Puinawai Natural National Reserve (1,092,500 ha) (in range, Defler 2003, 2004)
Yasuní National Park (982,000 ha) (Tirira 2007)
Sumaco-Napo Galeras National Park (205,249 ha) (Tirira 2007)
Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve (403,000 ha) (in range) (Tirira 2007)
Limoncocha Biological Reserve (4,613 ha) (in range) (Tirira 2007)
Cuyabeno Faunistic Reserve (603,380 ha) (in range) (Tirira 2007)
Jaú National Park (2,378,410 ha) (in range)
Juamí-Japurá Ecological Station (832,078 ha) (in range)
Mamirauá State Sustainable Development Reserve (1,124,000 ha)(in range)
Amanã State Sustainable Development Reserve (2,350,000 ha) (in range)
It is listed on Appendix II of CITES.
Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1988. Population densities and goegraphic distribution of night monkeys (Aotus nancymai and Aotus vociferans) (Cebidae: Primates) in northeastern Peru. American Journal of Primatology 14: 375-381.
Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1994. Owl monkey populations in Latin America: field work and conservation. In: J. F. Baer, R. E. Weller and I. Kakoma (eds), Aotus: The Owl Monkey, pp. 59-95. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.
Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1994. Primates of Peru / Los Primates del Perú. Primate Report 40: 1-127.
Aquino, R., Puertas, P. E. and Encarnación, F. 1990. Supplemental notes on population parameters of northeastern Perucvian night monkeys, genus Aotus (Cebidae). American Journal of Primatology 21: 215-221.
Defler, T. R. 2003. Primates de Colombia. Conservation International, Bogota.
Defler, T. R. 2004. Primates of Colombia. Conservation International, Washington, DC, Usa.
Defler, T. R. and Bueno, M. L. 2007. Aotus diversity and the species problem. Primate Conservation 22: 55-70.
Dixson, A. F. 1983. The owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). In: J. P. Hearn (ed.), Reproduction in New World Primates: new Models in Medical Sciences, pp. 69-113. International Medical Publishers, Lancaster, UK.
Fernandez-Duque, E. 2004. High levels of intrasexual competition in sexually monomorphic owl monkeys (Aotus azarai). Foliia Primatologica 75(1): 260.
Fernandez-Duque, E. 2007. Aotinae: Social monogamy in the only nocturnal haplorhines. In: C. J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K. C. Mackinnon, M. Panger and S. K. Bearder (eds), Primates in Perspective, pp. 139-154. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Fernandez-Duque, E. and Huntington, C. 2002. Disappearances of individuals from social groups have imolications for understanding natal dispersal in monogamous owl monkeys (Aotus azarai). American Journal of Primatology 57: 219-225.
Ford, S. M. 1994. Taxonomy and distribution of the owl monkey. In: J. F. Baer, R. E. Weller and I. Kakoma (eds), Aotus: The Owl Monkey, pp. 1–57. Alan R. Liss, New York, USA.
Heltne, P. G. 1977. Census of Aotus in northern Colombia. Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, USA.
Hernández-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. The nonhuman primates of Colombia. In: R. W. Thorington, Jr. and P. G. Heltne (eds), Neotropical Primates: Field Studies and Conservation, pp. 35-69. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.
Hernández-Camacho, J. and Defler, T. R. 1988. Some aspects of the conservation of non-human primates in Colombia. Primate Conservation 6: 42-50.
Hershkovitz, P. 1983. Two new species of night monkeys, genus Aotus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A preliminary report on Aotus taxonomy. American Journal of Primatology 4: 209–243.
Juárez, C., Rotundo, M. and Fernandez-Duque, E. 2003. Behavioral sex differences in the socially monogamous night monkeys of the Argentinean Chaco. Revista de Etologia 5: 174.
Palanco-Ochoa, R., Jaimes V. and Piragua, W. 1999. Los mamíferos del Parque Nacional Natural La Paya, Amazonia Colombiana. Revista de la Academia Colombia Ciencias 23: 671–682.
Rotundo, M., Fernandez-Duque, E. and Dixson, A. F. 2005. Infant development and paretnal care in free-rannig groups of owl monkeys (Aotus azarai azarai) in Argentina. International Journal of Primatology 36(6): 1459-1473.
Rotundo, M., Fernandez-Duque, E. and Giménez, M. 2002. Cuidado biparental en el mono de noche (Aotus azarai azarai) de Formosa, Argentina. Neotropical Primates 10: 70-72.
Ruiz-Herrera, A., García, F., Aguilera, M., Garcia, M. and Fontanals, M. P. 2005. Comparative chromosome painting in Aotus reveals a highly derived evolution. American Journal of Primatology 65: 73–85.
Tirira, D. 2001. Libro Rojo de los Mamíferos del Ecuador. Sociedad para la Investigación y Monitoreo de la Biodiversidad Ecuatoriana (SIMBIOE) / Ecociencias / Ministerio del Ambiente / UICN. Publicación Especial sobre los Mamíferos del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
Tirira, D. 2007. Guía de Campo de los Mamíferos del Ecuador. Ediciones Murciélago Blanco. Publicación especial sobre los mamíferos del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
Villavicencio Galindo, J. M. 2003. Distribución geográfica de los primates del género Aotus en el Departamento Norte de Santander, Colomiba. In: V. Pereira-Bengoa, F. Nassar-Montoya and A. Savage (eds), Primatología del Nuevo Mundo, pp. 264-271. Centro de Primatología Araguatos, Bogotá, Colombia.
Wright, P. C. 1978. Home range, activity pattern, and agonistic encounters of a group of night monkeys (Aotus trivrgatus) in Peru. Folia Primatologica 29: 43–55.
Wright, P. C. 1981. The night monkeys, genus Aotus. In: A. F. Coimbra-Filho and R. A. Mittermeier (eds), Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 1, pp. 211-240. Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Wright, P. C. 1985. The costs and benefits of nocturnality for Aotus trivirgatus (the night monkey). Ph.D .Thesis, City University of New York.
Wright, P. C. 1989. The nocturnal primate niche in the New World. Journal of Human Evolution 18: 635-638.
Wright, P. C. 1994. The behavior and ecology of the owl monkey. In: J. F. Baer, R. E. Weller and I. Kakoma (eds), The Owl Monkey, pp. 97-112. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.
|Citation:||Morales-Jiménez, A.L., Link, A., Cornejo, F. & Stevenson, P. 2008. Aotus vociferans. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 April 2014.|
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