|Scientific Name:||Talpa europaea|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Amori, G., Hutterer, R., Mitsain, G., Yigit, N., Kryštufek, B. & Palomo, L.J.|
|Reviewer/s:||Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority) & Temple, H. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
This species is widespread and abundant, with no serious threats at present. Consequently it is assessed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||The European mole occurs from Britain and Spain eastwards through much of continental Europe to the rivers Ob and Irtysh in Asian Russia (Corbet 1978, Kryštufek 1999, Wilson and Reeder 2005). In the Mediterranean, it is generally widespread on the European continent, although absent from southern Iberia, southern Italy, the southern Balkans (where it is replaced by other Talpa species). It is found on many islands in the Baltic and around the British coast, but it is not found on Ireland, Iceland, the North Sea islands, and the Mediterranean islands (with the exception of Cres in the northern Adriatic). It is found from sea level to 2,400 m (Kryštufek 1999).|
Native:Albania; Andorra; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Italy; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Monaco; Montenegro; Netherlands; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is generally common in appropriate habitats, with densities of up to 16 individuals per hectare recorded (Kryštufek 1999). It is sufficiently common to be considered a pest of farmland and lawns in many parts of its range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is present in most habitats where there is sufficiently deep soil to permit the construction of its extensive burrows. It prefers meadows, pastures, arable land, gardens and parks, and is rarely found in coniferous forests, or habitats with sandy, stony or permanently waterlogged soils (Kryštufek 1999). It feeds mainly on earthworms, as well as other soil invertebrates (Niethammer 1990).|
|Major Threat(s):||It is widely persecuted as a pest, but although this may cause local population declines it is not a serious threat to the species. In the past, it was hunted in great numbers for its fur, but mostly in the northern parts of its range (outside of the Mediterranean) and this no longer occurs anyway.|
|Conservation Actions:||It occurs in protected areas within its range. No specific conservation measures are recommended.|
Corbet, G. B. 1978. The Mammals of the Palaearctic Region: a Taxonomic Review. British Museum (Natural History) and Cornell University Press, London, UK and Ithaca, NY, USA.
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
Kryštufek, B. 1999. Talpa europaea. In: A. J. Mitchell-Jones, G. Amori, W. Bogdanowicz, B. Kryštufek, P. J. H. Reijnders, F. Spitzenberger, M. Stubbe, J. B. M. Thissen, V. Vohralík and J. Zima (eds), The Atlas of European Mammals, pp. 82-83. Academic Press, London, UK.
Niethammer, J. 1990. Talpa europaea Linnaeus, 1758 - Maulwurf. In: J. Niethammer and F. Krapp (eds), Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas. Band 3/I, Insectivora, Primates, Aula Verlag, Wiesbaden.
Wilson, D. E. and Reeder, D. M. 2005. Mammal Species of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.
|Citation:||Amori, G., Hutterer, R., Mitsain, G., Yigit, N., Kryštufek, B. & Palomo, L.J. 2008. Talpa europaea. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 June 2013.|
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