|Scientific Name:||Cephalophus nigrifrons Gray, 1871|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Five subspecies have been named, the nominate form in the Congo Basin and four forms in the montane forests of eastern Africa (Grubb and Groves 2001, Plumptre 2013), including a distinctive subspecies, the Rwenzori Red Duiker (C. n. rubidus), sometimes regarded as a separate species, in the alpine and subalpine zones of the Rwenzori Mountains on the Uganda/DR Congo border.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group|
|Reviewer(s):||Hoffmann, M. & Mallon, D.|
Listed Least Concern as the species remains reasonably widespread with a total population in the order of 300,000. However, numbers will continue to decrease gradually as human populations and bushmeat hunting increase within the equatorial forest zone. If current trends continue, it will eventually disappear from large parts of its present range until it is confined to isolated fragments of forest which are effectively protected from hunting and the encroachment of settlement. Current rates of decline are not yet considered to have reached a rate that would qualify for Near Threatened.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The Black-fronted Duiker occurs widely in the Lower Guinea and Congo Basin Forests from the Niger Delta east to the Albertine Rift and south to northern Angola, and in montane forests in East Africa. The Nigerian population in the Niger Delta is probably disjunct from the nearest known population in Cameroon (East 1999, Plumptre 2013). In Uganda they are known on Mt Elgon, the Rwenzori mountains, Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, in Rwanda in Volcanoes NP and Nyungwe Forest Reserve, and in Kenya on Mt Kenya, the Aberdares and Mt Elgon (Plumptre 2013). Isolated populations of this species were recorded on Mounts Cameroon, Kupe and Manengube by Bowden (1986), but Grubb et al. (2003) were not convinced these records relate to Black-fronted Duiker.|
C. n. rubidus is confined to the Ruwenzori Mountains at altitudes of 1,300-4,200 m, although it is thus far only recorded from the Ugandan side of the range (Kingdon 1982, Grubb and Groves 2001, Kingdon 2013).
Native:Angola; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Kenya; Nigeria; Rwanda; Uganda
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||East (1999) produced a total population estimate of about 300,000 based on average densities of 2.0/km2 in high density areas and 0.2/km2 elsewhere. Population trends are probably downwards over large parts of the species’ range, except for areas where hunting pressures are low because of low human population densities and/or active protection. Densities in the Virunga Mts were 5-22/km2 (Plumptre 2013). |
East (1999) suggested that the population of the Rwenzori Red Duiker may number at least in the thousands.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Occurs in tropical forests, typically ranging in lowland swamp forest and seasonally flooded forest, waterlogged habitats along streams and areas with poorly drained or permanently saturated soils. It also inhabits montane forests, subalpine vegetation zones, bamboo, and moorland on Mt Elgon, Mt Kenya and the Aberdares (Plumptre 2013). In the Ituri Forest, DR Congo, it occurred in both mixed and monodominant Gilbertiodendron forests but only along water courses in both types (Hart 2000).|
|Generation Length (years):||4.6|
|Use and Trade:||In central and West Africa this species is hunted heavily wherever it occurs in proximity to man, and hunting is increasing with the opening up of the Congo Basin by timber extraction companies (Plumptre 2013). Data from Rwanda revealed that Black-fronted Duiker meat is significantly lower in price than domestic meat (Plumptre and Bizumuremyi 1996, Plumptre et al. 1997) and they were a favoured species for hunters.|
Like most other forest duikers, the distribution and numbers of this species have been reduced markedly in areas of dense human settlement and intensive hunting for bushmeat, but it survives in good numbers in areas where the level of human activities is relatively low (East 1999).
Although much of the range of the Rwenzori Red Duiker falls in a national park, the species nonetheless remains susceptible to snaring, and to habitat loss in the lower elevations of its range.
The Black-fronted Duiker is present in a number of protected areas such as Lobeke (Cameroon), Dzanga-Sangha (Central African Republic), Lac Télé-Likouala and Nouabale-Ndoki (Congo-Brazzaville), Virunga, Ituri, Maiko, Kahuzi-Biega and Salonga (Congo-Kinshasa), Bwindi (Uganda), Volcanoes National Park (Rwanda) and Mount Kenya. Most of these key populations are stable.
Much of the Ugandan range of the Rwenzori Red Duiker is included within Rwenzori Mountains National Park. There is a need for further taxonomic work to determine whether this subspecies does indeed deserve recognition as a distinct species (as considered by Kingdon 2013).
Bowden, C. C. R. 1986. Records of other species of mammal from western Cameroon. In: S. N. Stuart (ed.), Conservation of Cameroon montane forests, pp. 201-203. International Council for Bird Preservation.
East, R. (compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Grubb, P. and Groves, C.P. 2001. Revision and Classification of the Cephalophinae. In: V.J. Wilson (ed.), Duikers of Africa: Masters of the African Floor, pp. 703-728. Chipangali Wildlife Trust, Bulawayo,Zimbabwe.
Grubb, P., Groves, C. P. and Powell, C. B. 2003. Duikers and dwarf antelopes: new or uncertain records. In: A. Plowman (ed.), Ecology and Conservation of small antelope, pp. 127-140. Filander Verlag, Fürth, Germany.
Hart, J. 2000. Impact and sustainability of indigenous hunting in the Ituri Forest, Congo-Zaire: a comparison of unhunted and hunted duiker populations. In: J. G. Robinson and E. L. Bennett (eds), Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests, pp. 106-153. Columbia University Press, New York.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).
Kingdon, J. 1982. East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa. Academic Press, London, UK.
Kingdon, J. 2013. Cephalophus rubidus Rwenzori Red Duiker. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa. Volume VI: Pigs, Hippopotamuses, Chevrotain, Giraffes, Deer, and Bovids, pp. 253-254. Bloomsbury Publishing, London.
Plumptre, A. J. 2013. Cephalophus nigrifrons Black-fronted Duiker. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, pp. 268-271. Bloomsbury, London, UK.
Plumptre, A. J. and Bizumuremyi, J. B. 1996. Ungulates and hunting in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda. The effects of the Rwandan civil war on ungulate populations and the socioeconomics of poaching. Report to the Wildlife Conservation Society .
Plumptre, A. J., Bizumuremyi, J. B., Uwimana, F. and Ndaruhebeye, J. D. 1997. The effects of the Rwandan civil war on poaching of ungulates in the Parc National des Volcans. Oryx 31: 265-273.
Wilson, V.J. 2001. Duikers of Africa: Masters of the African Forest Floor. Directory Publishers, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2016. Cephalophus nigrifrons. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T4146A50183573.Downloaded on 14 August 2018.|
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