|Scientific Name:||Sylvilagus audubonii|
|Species Authority:||(Baird, 1858)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||There are 11 recognized subspecies: Sylvilagus audubonii audubonii, S. a. arizonae, S. a. minor, S. a. Baileyi, S. a. confinis, S. a. sanctidiegi, S. a. goldmani, S. a. parvulus, S. a. cedrophilus, S. a. neomexicanus, and S. a. vallicola (Hall 1981).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Mexican Association for Conservation and Study of Lagomorphs (AMCELA), Romero Malpica, F.J. & Rangel Cordero, H.|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, A.T. & Boyer, A.F. (Lagomorph Red List Authority)|
Sylvilagus audubonii is widespread and common, occurs in a large contiguous area, is a habitat and dietary generalist, and none of the subspecies are known to be significantly declining (Chapman and Willner 1978, Chapman and Ceballos 1990).
Sylvilagus audubonii occurs in the western USA and north and central Mexico. In the USA the western boundary is the Pacific Ocean and in the east it barely extends into the Great Plains. The far northern extent of the range almost reaches Canada in eastern Montana and southwestern North Dakota, extending south through Wyoming, western South Dakota, Nebraska, and Kansas, the panhandle of Oklahoma, and western Texas. Except for extreme mountainous areas, the range includes Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, south and central Utah, southern Nevada, and all but northern California (Chapman and Ceballos 1990). In Mexico, the range includes all of Baja California, Baja California Sur, most of Sonora and Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, western Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosi, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, eastern Durango, northern Sinaloa, north-eastern Jalisco, northern Guanajuato, northern Queretaro, central Hidalgo, Tlaxcala, north-central Puebla, and a small area in western Veracruz (Vargas Cuenca and Cervantes 2005).
S. audubonii occurs from below sea level in Death Valley, California, to 1,829 m or higher (Chapman and Willner 1978).
Native:Mexico (Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Nuevo León, Puebla, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Zacatecas); United States (Arizona, California, Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Wyoming)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Little specific data regarding population density and abundance exists, but S. audubonii is known to be common throughout most of its range in Mexico and is not considered to be threatened by state game agencies in the USA (Chapman and Ceballos 1990). A report in 1947 showed that a population in the San Joaquin Experimental Range in California had a population density that fluctuated over three years (1939-41) of 4.7, 1.6, and 2.9 individuals per hectare (Chapman and Willner 1978). A study in northeastern Colorado showed a density of 16.3 individuals per hectare (Flinders and Hansen 1973).
In the Reserva de la Biosfera de Mapimi in Durango, Mexico, the S. audubonii population is declining (Portales 2004).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
S. audubonii inhabits arid and mountain regions from woodlands, grasslands to deserts at low elevations (Chapman and Ceballos 1990). They appear to avoid midday heat and are active in the twilight hours of dawn and dusk as well as at night (Hoffmeister 1986).
The breeding season begins in December or January for a length of seven to nine months. Mean litter sizes vary among populations, between 2.6-3.6 young per litter, which is small for the genus (Chapman and Willner 1978). Total length for this species ranges from 37.2-40.0 cm (Vargas Cuenca and Cervantes 2005).
The diet of S. audubonii varies depending on habitat and cover. Field dwelling rabbits feed almost exclusively on grasses, but will eat diverse vegetation when available (Chapman and Willner 1978, Chapman and Ceballos 1990).
Early evidence indicated that S. audubonii is short-lived and one study found that no rabbit lived past the age of 19 months, while most rabbits lived less than one year (Chapman and Willner 1978).
|Use and Trade:||It is hunted for food and sport.|
S. audubonii is widespread and common in many parts of its range, including Mexico, but cattle grazing and habitat loss due to land clearing may affect some populations (Chapman and Ceballos 1990). Predation by invasive alien species, including domestic dogs and cats, presents a threat in some areas populated by humansi (Chapman and Willner 1978).
S. audubonii is hunted for sport and local subsistence and as an important game species it is managed by individual states in the USA, where it is not considered to be under threat (Chapman and Ceballos 1990).
Human-induced fire may represent a threat for some populations. Competition with Lepus californicus may affect S. audubonii populations.
|Conservation Actions:||S. audubonii is managed a game species in the USA by individual state wildlife agencies. None of the subspecies are known to be under threat and no new conservation measures are needed (Chapman and Ceballos 1990).|
Chapman, J. A. and Ceballos, G. 1990. Chapter 5: The Cottontails. In: J. A. Chapman and J. C. Flux (eds), Rabbits, hares and pikas: status survey and conservation action plan, pp. 95-110. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Chapman, J. A. and Willner, G. R. 1978. Sylvilagus audubonii. Mammalian Species 106: 1-4.
Flinders, J. T. and Hansen, R. M. 1973. Abundance and distribution of leporids within a shortgrass ecosystem. Journal of Mammalogy 54: 287-291.
Hall, E.R. 1981. The Mammals of North America. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.
Hoffmeister, D. F. 1986. Mammals of Arizona. University of Arizona Press and Arizona Game and Fish Department, Tucson, Arizona, USA.
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
Portales, G. 2004. Sylvilagus audubonii.
Vargas Cuenca, J. and Cervantes, F. A. 2005. Sylvilagus audubonii (Baird, 1858) Conejo del desierto. In: G. Ceballos and G. Oliva (eds), Los mamiferos silvestres de Mexico, pp. 838-839. Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, Fondo de Cultura Economica, Mexico, D. F.
|Citation:||Mexican Association for Conservation and Study of Lagomorphs (AMCELA), Romero Malpica, F.J. & Rangel Cordero, H. 2008. Sylvilagus audubonii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 May 2015.|
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