Piliocolobus preussi 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Piliocolobus preussi Matschie, 1900
Common Name(s):
English Preuss’s Red Colobus
French Colobe de Preuss
Spanish Colobo Rojo de Camerún
Procolobus badius ssp. preussi (Maatschie, 1900)
Procolobus preussi (Matschie, 1900)
Taxonomic Source(s): Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. and Wilson D.E. 2013. Handbook of the Mammals of the World: Volume 3 Primates. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
Taxonomic Notes: Modern taxonomic arrangements of the colobus monkeys either divide the red colobus and the Olive Colobus into two genera,  Piliocolobus  and  Procolobus, respectively (e.g., Kingdon 1997, Groves 2005), or consider them to belong to one genus, Procolobus, with two subgenera (Procolobus for the Olive Colobus and Piliocolubus for the red colobus) (Grubb et al. 2003 [followed in the 2008 IUCN Red List], Grubb et al. 2013). The arrangement of using two separate genera in Groves (2001, 2005, 2007) is followed here.

Here treated as a distinct species from P. pennantii following Kingdon and Butynski (2013); this species has, in the past, also been considered a subspecies of P. badius.

This is an updated assessment to reflect the change in genus name.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2008-07-01
Assessor(s): Oates, J.F., Struhsaker, T., Morgan, B., Linder, J. & Ting, N.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Listed as Critically Endangered as this species is estimated to have undergone a decline of more than 80% over the past three generations (ca. 30 years), due to high levels of hunting and habitat loss. It is now confined mainly to Korup National Park.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:P. preussi is present in southeastern Nigeria in the Cross River National Park (Oban Division) extending into the adjacent Korup National Park and surrounds in southwestern Cameroon; they also occur in Ebo Forest just north of the Sanaga River (Grubb et al. 2000, Dowsett-Lemaire and Dowsett 2001), and at least until fairly recently still persisted in Makombe forest to the north of Ebo where the were heard in 2003 (B. Morgan pers. comm.).
Countries occurrence:
Cameroon; Nigeria
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):50
Upper elevation limit (metres):1400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Between 10,000 and 15,000 P. preussi may be present in Korup National Park, the stronghold for the taxon (Oates 1996). Edwards (1992) estimated group densities in northeastern Korup at 0.52-0.56 groups/km², which is not too dissimilar from more recent estimates by J. Linder (pers. comm.) in the same area (0.46 grps/sq. km). No absolute density is available for southern Korup, but J. Linder (pers. comm.) encountered 12 groups in 243 km walked.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:An inhabitant of lowland and mid-altitude moist forest up to 1,400 m (Butynski and Kingdon 2013). Edwards (1992) recorded group sizes of 20-64 animals for P. preussi, similar to those recorded by J. Linder (pers. comm.).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat to this species is hunting (e.g., Dowsett-Lemaire and Dowsett 2001) and habitat degradation. P. preussi made up a relatively large proportion of the total primate offtake in Korup National Park, especially in the northeast (22% of carcasses) (J. Linder pers. comm.).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This taxon is listed on Appendix II of CITES and on Class B of the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. P. preussi is present in Korup National Park (1,260 km²) and its perimeter in Cameroon, with a small number residing in the adjacent Oban division of Cross River National Park (Nigeria). It is also recorded from Ebo Wildlife Reserve, just north of the Sanaga River, which has been proposed as a new national park.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Butynski, T.M. and Kingdon, J. 2013. Procolobus preussi Preuss's Red Colobus. In: T.M. Butynski, J. Kingdon and J. Kalina (eds), The Mammals of Africa. Volume II: Primates, pp. 134-136. Bloomsbury Publishing, London.

Dowsett-Lemaire, F. and Dowsett, R.J. 2001. A new population of gorillas Gorilla gorilla and other endangered primates in western Cameroon. African Primates 5: 3–7.

Edwards, A.E. 1992. The diurnal primates of Korup National Park, Cameroon. Abundance, productivity, and polyspecific associations. Thesis, University of Florida.

Groves C. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Groves, C.P. 2007. The taxonomic diversity of the Colobinae of Africa. Journal of Anthropological Sciences 85: 7-34.

Grubb, P., Butynski, T.M., Oates, J.F., Bearder, S.K., Disotell, T.R., Groves, C.P. and Struhsaker, T.T. 2003. Assessment of the diversity of African primates. International Journal of Primatology 24(6): 1301-1357.

Grubb, P., Oates, J.F., White, L.J.T. and Tooze, Z. 2000. Monkeys recently added to the Nigerian faunal list. The Nigerian Field 65: 149-158.

Grubb, P., Struhsaker, T.T. and Siex, K.S. 2013. Subgenus Piliocolobus Red Colobus Monkeys. In: T.M. Butynski, J. Kingdon and J. Kalina (eds), The Mammals of Africa. Volume II: Primates, pp. 125–128. Bloomsbury Publishing, London.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Oates, J.F. 1996. African Primates: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Citation: Oates, J.F., Struhsaker, T., Morgan, B., Linder, J. & Ting, N. 2016. Piliocolobus preussi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T41026A92632162. . Downloaded on 21 April 2018.
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