Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Alsodidae

Scientific Name: Alsodes tumultuosus
Species Authority: Veloso, Iturra-Constant & Galleguillos, 1979
Common Name(s):
English La Parva Spiny-chest Frog
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-11-17
Assessor(s): Alberto Veloso, Herman Núñez
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Critically Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 100 km2 and its Area Of Occupancy is less than 10km2, all individuals are in a single location, and there is continuing decline in the number of mature individuals, and in the extent and quality of its habitat around Farellones.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Critically Endangered (CR)
1996 Data Deficient (DD)
1996 Data Deficient (DD)
1994 Endangered (E)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known only from Farellones (33° 32'S; 70°19'W), Central Chile, 35km north-east of Santiago, at an altitudinal range of 2,300-3,000m asl, though it is possibly more widely distributed.
Countries occurrence:
Lower elevation limit (metres): 2300
Upper elevation limit (metres): 3000
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is currently believed to comprise only a few adults. Like its congener, A. montanus, it was last collected in 2003, and the population has declined substantially in recent years. Areas where the species is known to breed were found to have been completely destroyed by February 2002.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This stream-breeding species has been found under stones, close to mountain streams, where the surrounding vegetation comprises grasses and shrubs characteristic of cold Andean areas. It has free-swimming tadpoles.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Currently, the primary threat to this species is from recreational skiing and tourist infrastructure development, since the only known locality where the species is found is in a ski resort.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Protection and maintenance of its existing habitat is a priority for this species, as it is currently not known from any protected area.

Classifications [top]

4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Díaz-Páez, H. and Ortiz, J.C. 2003. Evaluación del estado de conservación de los anfibios en Chile. Assessment of the conservation status of amphibians in Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 76: 509-525.

Formas, J.R. 1995. Anfibios. In: Simonetti, J.M., Arroyo, T.K., Spotorno, A. and Loz, E. (eds), Diversidad Biológica de Chile, Comisión nacional de ciencia y tecnología (CONICYT), Santiago-Chile.

Glade, A. 1993. Red List of Chilean Terrestrial vertebrates. Corporación nacional forestal (CONAF), Santiago-Chile.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: (Accessed: 29 June 2010).

Servicio Agrícola Ganadero. 1998. Cartilla de caza. Imp. I. Flores, Santiago de Chile.

Veloso, A. and Navarro, J. 1988. Lista Sistemática y distribución geográfica de anfibios y reptiles de Chile. Bollettino del Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali - Torino: 481-539.

Veloso, A., Iturra, P. and Galleguillos, R. 1979. Evidencias cromosómicas en el género Alsodes (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae), con la descripción de una nueva especie. Physis: 91-98.

Citation: Alberto Veloso, Herman Núñez. 2010. Alsodes tumultuosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T40785A10353564. . Downloaded on 04 October 2015.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided