|Scientific Name:||Alsodes tumultuosus|
|Species Authority:||Veloso, Iturra-Constant & Galleguillos, 1979|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(i,iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Contributor(s):||Veloso, A., Charrier, A., Correa, C., Soto, C., Velez, C., Lobos, G., Nunez, H., Mendez, M. & Díaz, S.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hobin, L. & Superina, M.|
Listed as Vulnerable because its extent of occurrence is 6,343 km2, there are no more than 10 locations, and several of them - especially in the extremes of its range - are threatened by human activities. In the north its habitat is being reduced by constructions related to the tourism industry (skiing), and the habitat quality is affected by pollution due to sewage. In the south, the construction of several hydroelectric dams has already been approved, and there is no doubt that this will affect the species directly and indirectly. Finally, chytridiomycosis has been identified in one of the sub-populations.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||This species is known from 10 threat-defined locations from the Metropolitan region to the VI region of Chile, at altitudes between 2,000 and 3,000 m asl. It has an extent of occurrence of 6,343 km2.|
Native:Chile (O'Higgins, Santiago)
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes|
|Number of Locations:||10|
|Lower elevation limit (metres):||2000|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||3000|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The species seems to be more abundant than its congener A. montanus.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This stream-breeding species has been found under stones, in mountain streams, where the surrounding vegetation comprises grasses characteristic of cold Andean areas. It has free-swimming tadpoles.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||There are no records of this species being utilized.|
|Major Threat(s):||The primary threat in the northernmost location is from recreational skiing and tourist infrastructure development, as well as the associated pollution by sewage. Projected hydroelectric dams - some of which are already being constructed - will affect the species in the southern range in the near future. Chytridiomycosis has been found in high proportions in one sub-population (Farallones).|
The species occurs in Reserva Nacional Río Cipreses.
Díaz-Páez, H. and Ortiz, J.C. 2003. Evaluación del estado de conservación de los anfibios en Chile. Assessment of the conservation status of amphibians in Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 76: 509-525.
Formas, J.R. 1995. Anfibios. In: Simonetti, J.M., Arroyo, T.K., Spotorno, A. and Loz, E. (eds), Diversidad Biológica de Chile, Comisión nacional de ciencia y tecnología (CONICYT), Santiago-Chile.
Glade, A. 1993. Red List of Chilean Terrestrial vertebrates. Corporación nacional forestal (CONAF), Santiago-Chile.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
Servicio Agrícola Ganadero. 1998. Cartilla de caza. Imp. I. Flores, Santiago de Chile.
Veloso, A. and Navarro, J. 1988. Lista Sistemática y distribución geográfica de anfibios y reptiles de Chile. Bollettino del Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali - Torino: 481-539.
Veloso, A., Iturra, P. and Galleguillos, R. 1979. Evidencias cromosómicas en el género Alsodes (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae), con la descripción de una nueva especie. Physis: 91-98.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Alsodes tumultuosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T40785A79810485. . Downloaded on 25 June 2016.|
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