Alsodes tumultuosus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Alsodidae

Scientific Name: Alsodes tumultuosus
Species Authority: Veloso, Iturra-Constant & Galleguillos, 1979
Common Name(s):
English La Parva Spiny-chest Frog
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(i,iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-07-09
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Luedtke, J.
Contributor(s): Veloso, A., Charrier, A., Correa, C., Soto, C., Velez, C., Lobos, G., Nunez, H., Mendez, M. & Díaz, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Hobin, L. & Superina, M.
Listed as Vulnerable because its extent of occurrence is 6,343 km2, there are no more than 10 locations, and several of them - especially in the extremes of its range - are threatened by human activities. In the north its habitat is being reduced by constructions related to the tourism industry (skiing), and the habitat quality is affected by pollution due to sewage. In the south, the construction of several hydroelectric dams has already been approved, and there is no doubt that this will affect the species directly and indirectly. Finally, chytridiomycosis has been identified in one of the sub-populations.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2010 Critically Endangered (CR)
2004 Critically Endangered (CR)
1996 Data Deficient (DD)
1996 Data Deficient (DD)
1994 Endangered (E)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known from 10 threat-defined locations from the Metropolitan region to the VI region of Chile, at altitudes between 2,000 and 3,000 m asl. It has an extent of occurrence of 6,343 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Chile (O'Higgins, Santiago)
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Number of Locations: 10
Lower elevation limit (metres): 2000
Upper elevation limit (metres): 3000
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The species seems to be more abundant than its congener A. montanus.
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This stream-breeding species has been found under stones, in mountain streams, where the surrounding vegetation comprises grasses characteristic of cold Andean areas. It has free-swimming tadpoles.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The primary threat in the northernmost location is from recreational skiing and tourist infrastructure development, as well as the associated pollution by sewage. Projected hydroelectric dams - some of which are already being constructed - will affect the species in the southern range in the near future. Chytridiomycosis has been found in high proportions in one sub-population (Farallones).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
The species occurs in Reserva Nacional Río Cipreses.

Classifications [top]

4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.9. Small dams
♦ timing: Future ♦ scope: Minority (<50%)   

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)
♦ timing: Ongoing    

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.1. Sewage
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%)   

Bibliography [top]

Díaz-Páez, H. and Ortiz, J.C. 2003. Evaluación del estado de conservación de los anfibios en Chile. Assessment of the conservation status of amphibians in Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 76: 509-525.

Formas, J.R. 1995. Anfibios. In: Simonetti, J.M., Arroyo, T.K., Spotorno, A. and Loz, E. (eds), Diversidad Biológica de Chile, Comisión nacional de ciencia y tecnología (CONICYT), Santiago-Chile.

Glade, A. 1993. Red List of Chilean Terrestrial vertebrates. Corporación nacional forestal (CONAF), Santiago-Chile.

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: (Accessed: 19 November 2015).

Servicio Agrícola Ganadero. 1998. Cartilla de caza. Imp. I. Flores, Santiago de Chile.

Veloso, A. and Navarro, J. 1988. Lista Sistemática y distribución geográfica de anfibios y reptiles de Chile. Bollettino del Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali - Torino: 481-539.

Veloso, A., Iturra, P. and Galleguillos, R. 1979. Evidencias cromosómicas en el género Alsodes (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae), con la descripción de una nueva especie. Physis: 91-98.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2015. Alsodes tumultuosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T40785A79810485. . Downloaded on 29 November 2015.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided