|Scientific Name:||Petauroides volans|
|Species Authority:||(Kerr, 1792)|
Didelphis volans Kerr, 1792
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2bc+3bc+4bc ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Burbidge, A.A. & Woinarski, J.|
|Contributor(s):||Martin, R., Lunney, D., Menkhorst, P., Oakwood, M., Eyre, T., Goldingay, R., Lindenmayer, D. & Quin, D.|
The population of the Greater Glider is declining because of habitat loss, fragmentation, extensive fire, and some forestry practices, and this decline is likely to be exacerbated by climate change (Kearney et al. 2010). The species is particularly susceptible because of slow life history characteristics, specialist requirements for large tree hollows (and hence mature forests), and relatively specialised dietary requirements. Across its broad range, the population size and rate of decline is unknown, but a large-scale monitoring program in the central highlands of Victoria demonstrated a decline of c. 9% per year for the period 1997-2010; and a substantial monitoring program in a conservation reserve in coastal New South Wales reported a complete loss of the monitored subpopulation over the period 2002 to 2010 (Lindenmayer et al. 2011). At woodland sites in central Queensland first sampled in 1973-76 and re-sampled in 2001-02, abundance declined by 89% (Woinarski et al. 2006). There is little other published information on population trends over the period relevant to this assessment (c. 22 years), and these sites are not necessarily representative of trends across the species’ range, but they provide sufficient evidence to suspect that the overall rate of population decline exceeds 30% over a 22 year (=three generation) period.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The Greater Glider is endemic to eastern Australia, where it ranges from Windsor Tableland in far northern Queensland to the Wombat Forest in central Victoria. It occurs from sea level up to around 1,200 m a.s.l.|
Native:Australia (Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
There is no reliable estimate of population size. Lunney et al. (2008) considered that it had a ‘presumed large population’ and was ‘locally common’. Winter et al. (2004) considered it ‘common’ in the north Queensland portion of its range. In New South Wales, Kavanagh (2004) considered it ‘widespread and common … particularly in north-eastern New South Wales’. Density estimates in Victoria range from 0.6 to 2.8 individuals/ha (Henry 1984; van der Ree et al. 2004), and across its broader range from 0.01 to 5 individuals/ha (Kavanagh 1984; Kehl and Borsboom 1984; Maloney 2007). In southern Queensland, trees with hollows are extremely limited in some extensive forest types that have been historically used for timber production, and this in turn limits Greater Glider distribution and abundance (Eyre 2006).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
The Greater Glider is an arboreal marsupial, largely restricted to eucalypt forests and woodlands. It is primarily folivorous, with a diet mostly comprising eucalypt leaves, and occasionally flowers (Kehl and Borsboom 1984; Kavanagh and Lambert 1990; van der Ree et al. 2004). Highest abundance is typically in taller, montane, moist eucalypt forests, with relatively old trees and abundant hollows (Andrews et al. 1994; Smith et al. 1994a,b; Kavanagh 2000; Eyre 2004; van der Ree et al. 2004; Vanderduys et al. 2012). The distribution may be patchy even in suitable habitat (Kavanagh 2000). The Greater Glider favours forests with a diversity of eucalypt species, due to seasonal variation in preference for food tree species (Kavanagh 1984).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||7-8|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Land clearing for agriculture, logging, and bushfires adversely affects this species throughout its range, with these threats exacerbated because of need for large trees with hollows and very limited dispersal. Modelling indicates severe range contraction for northern subspecies (Kearney et al. 2010)|
The Greater Glider occurs in many conservation reserves across its extensive range. In production forests, some logging prescriptions have been imposed to reduce impacts upon this species.
Andrews, S.P., Gration, G., Quin, D., and Smith, A.P. 1994. Description and assessment of forestry impacts on fauna of the Urbenville Forestry Management Area. Report for State Forests of New South Wales Austeco Environmental Consultants, Armidale.
Comport, S. S., Ward, S. J., and Foley, W. J. 1996. Home ranges, time budgets and food tree use in a high density tropical population of greater gliders, Petauroides volans minor (Pseudocheiridae: Marsupialia). Wildlife Research 23: 401-419.
Eyre, T.J. 2002. Habitat preferences and management of large gliding possums in southern Queensland. Southern Cross University.
Eyre, T.J. 2004. Distribution and conservation status of the possums and gliders of southern Queensland. In: R.L. Goldingay and S.M. Jackson (eds), The biology of Australian possums and gliders, pp. 1-25. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Eyre, T. J. 2006. Regional habitat selection by large gliding possums at forest stand and landscape scales in southern Queensland, Australia. I. Greater Glider (Petauroides volans). Forest Ecology and Management 235: 270-282.
Gibbons, P., and Lindenmayer, D. B. 2002. Tree hollows and wildlife conservation in Australia . CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
Goldingay, R. L. 2012. Characteristics of tree hollows used by Australian arboreal and scansorial mammals. Australian Journal of Zoology 59: 277-294.
Harris, J. M., and Maloney, S. 2010. Petauroides volans (Diprodontia: Pseudocheiridae). Mammalian Species 42: 207-219.
Henry, S. R. 1984. Social organisation of the greater glider (Petauroides volans) in Victoria. In: A. P. Smith and I. D. Hume (eds), Possums and Gliders, pp. 221-228. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).
Kavanagh, R.P. 1984. Seasonal changes in habitat use by gliders and possums in southeastern New South Wales. In: A.P. Smith and I.D. Hume (eds), Possums and gliders, pp. 527-543. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Kavanagh, R. P. 2000. Effects of variable-intensity logging and the influence of habitat variables on the distribution of the Greater Glider Petauroides volans in montane forest, southeastern New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 18-30.
Kavanagh, R. P. 2004. Distribution and conservation status of possums and gliders in New South Wales. In: R. L. Goldingay and S. M. Jackson (eds), The biology of Australian possums and gliders, pp. 130-148. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Kavanagh, R. P., and Bamkin, K. L. 1995. Distribution of nocturnal forest birds and mammals in relation to the logging mosaic in south-eastern New South Wales, Australia. Biological Conservation 71: 41–53.
Kavanagh, R. P., and Lambert, M. 1990. Food selection by the greater glider: is foliar nitrogen a determinant of habitat quality? Australian Wildlife Research 17: 285–299.
Kavanagh, R.P., and Webb, G.A. 1998. Effects of variable-intensity logging on mammals, reptiles and amphibians at Waratah Creek, south-eastern New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 326–347.
Kavanagh, R. P., and Wheeler, R. J. 2004. Home range of the greater glider Petauroides volans in tall montane forest of southeastern New South Wales, and changes following logging. In: R. L. Goldingay and S. M. Jackson (eds), The biology of Australian possums and gliders, pp. 413-425. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Sydney.
Kavanagh, R. P.; Debus, S.; Tweedie, T.; Webster, R. 1995. Distribution of nocturnal forest birds and mammals in north-eastern New South Wales: relationships with environmental variables and management history. Wildlife Research 22: 359-377.
Kearney, M. R., Wintle, B. A., and Porter, W. P. 2010. Correlative and mechanistic models of species distribution provide congruent forecasts under climate change. Conservation Letters 3: 203-213.
Kehl, J., and Borsboom, A. 1984. Home range, den tree use and activity patterns in the greater glider (Petauroides volans). In: A. P. Smith and I. D. Hume (eds), Possums and gliders, pp. 229-236. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Lindenmayer, D.B. 2009. Forest pattern and ecological process: a synthesis of 25 years of research. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
Lindenmayer, D. B., Cunningham, R. B., Tanton, M. T., Smith, A. P., and Nix, H. A. 1991. Characteristics of hollow-bearing trees occupied by arboreal marsupials in the montane ash forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria, south-east Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 40: 289-308.
Lindenmayer, D. B., Lacy, R. C. and Pope, M. L. 2000. Testing a simulation model for population viability analysis. Ecological Applications 10: 580–597.
Lindenmayer, D. B., Wood, J. T., McBurney, L., MacGregor, C., Youngentob, K. and Banks, S. C. 2011. How to make a common species rare: a case against conservation complacency. Biological Conservation 144: 1663–1672.
Lunney, D. 1987. Effects of logging, fire and drought on possums and gliders in the coastal forests near Bega, N.S.W. Australian Wildlife Research 13: 67-92.
Lunney, D., Menkhorst, P., Winter, J., Ellis, M., Strahan, R., Oakwood, M., Burnett, S., Denny, M., and Martin, R. 2008. Petauroides volans. In 'The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species'. Version 2012.2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 11 December 2012).
Maloney, K. S. 2007. The status of the Greater Glider Petauroides volans in the Illawarra region. School of Biological Sciences, University of Wollongong.
McCarthy, M. A., and Lindenmayer, D. B. 1999. Conservation of the greater glider (Petauroides volans) in remnant native vegetation within exotic plantation forest. Animal Conservation 2: 203-209.
McCarthy, M. A., and Lindenmayer, D. B. 1999. Incorporating metapopulations dynamics of greater gliders into reserve design in disturbed landscapes. Ecology 80: 651–667.
Pope, M. L., Lindenmayer, D. B., and Cunningham, R. B. 2005. Patch use by the greater glider (Petauroides volans) in a fragmented forest ecosystem. I. Home range size and movements. Wildlife Research 31: 559-568.
Smith, A. P., Andrews, S. P, Gration, G., Quin, D, and Sullivan, B. 1994. Description and assessment of forestry impacts on fauna of the Urunga - Coffs Harbour Forestry Management Area. Report for State Forests of New South Wales. Austeco Environmental Consultants, Armidale.
Smith, A.P., Moore, D.M. and Andrews, S.P. 1994. Fauna of the Grafton and Casino Forestry Study Areas: description and assessment of forestry impacts. Austeco Environmental Consultants, Armidale.
Smith, G. C., Mathieson, M., and Hogan, L. 2007. Home range and habitat use of a low-density population of Greater Glider, Petauroides volans (Pseudocheiridae: Marsupialia), in a hollow-limiting environment. Wildlife Research 34: 472-483.
Taylor, A. C., Tyndale-Biscoe, C. H. and Lindenmayer. D. B. 2007. Unexpected persistence on habitat islands: genetic signatures reveal dispersal of a eucalypt-dependent marsupial through a hostile pine matrix. Molecular Ecology 16: 2655–2666.
Taylor, B. D., and Goldingay, R. L. 2009. Can road-crossing structures improve population viability of an urban gliding mammal? Ecology and Society 14(2): 13.
Tyndale-Biscoe, C. H., and Smith, R. F. C. 1969. Studies on the marsupial glider Schoinobates volans (Kerr). III. Response to habitat destruction. . Journal of Animal Ecology 38: 651-659.
Tyndale-Biscoe, C. H., and Smith, R. F. C. 1969. Studies on the marsupial glider, Schoinobates volans (Kerr). II. Population structure and regulatory mechanisms. Journal of Animal Ecology 38: 637–650.
Vanderduys, E. P., Kutt, A. S., and Kemp, J. E. 2012. Upland savannas: the vertebrate fauna of largely unknown but significant habitat in north-eastern Queensland. Australian Zoologist 36: 59-74.
van der Ree, R., Ward, S.J. and Handasyde, K.A. 2004. Distribution and conservation status of possums and gliders in Victoria. In: R.L. Goldingay and S.M. Jackson (eds), The biology of Australian possums and gliders, pp. 91-110. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Winter, J. W., Dillewarard, H. A., Williams, S. E., and Bolitho, E. E. 2004. Possums and gliders of north Queensland: distribution and conservation status. In: R. L. Goldingay and S. M. Jackson (eds), The biology of Australian possums and gliders, pp. 26-50. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney.
Woinarski, J.C.Z., Burbidge, A.A. and Harrison, P.L. 2014. The Action Plan for Australian Mammals 2012. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
Woinarski, J. C. Z., McCosker, J. C., Gordon, G., Lawrie, B., James, C., Augusteyn, J., Slater, L., and Danvers, T. 2006. Monitoring change in the vertebrate fauna of central Queensland, Australia, over a period of broad-scale vegetation clearance, 1975-2002. Wildlife Research 33: 263-274.
|Citation:||Burbidge, A.A. & Woinarski, J. 2016. Petauroides volans. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T40579A21963210.Downloaded on 22 October 2016.|
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