Callicebus coimbrai


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Callicebus coimbrai
Species Authority: Kobayashi & Langguth, 1999
Common Name(s):
English Coimbra-filho’s Titi Monkey, Coimbra Filho's Titi Monkey, Coimbra's Titi
Taxonomic Notes: Kobayashi and Langguth (1999) described Callicebus coimbrai from the coast of the state of Sergipe, Brazil. Based on their study of this new species, along with previous craniometric studies by Kobayashi (1995), Kobayashi and Langguth (1999) argued that the titis of the Atlantic forest should be considered species rather than subspecies of C. personatus. In addition to C. coimbrai they listed C. nigrifrons, C. personatus, C. melanochir and C. barbarabrownae.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(ii,iii); C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Veiga, L.M., Sousa, M.C., Jerusalinsky, L., Ferrari, S.F., de Oliveira, M.M., Santos, S.S.D., Valente, M.C.M. & Printes, R.C.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
This species is listed as Endangered due to very small population (estimated to be less than 250 mature individuals in the wild), which is severely fragmented in small subpopulations and declining due to deforestation resulting in direct reduction and fragmentation of existing subpopulations. Its total range is estimate at ca. 150 km². Remaining forest fragments are suffering continued degradation due to effects of edge and selective small-scale logging (reduced habitat quality). It is possible that a more reliable population estimate will show that the species warrants listing under Critically Endangered, if the total number of mature individuals meets the threshold under C.
2003 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Kobayashi and Langguth (1999) believed the range of Callicebus coimbrai was limited to the coastal rainforests at the mouth of the rio São Francisco in Sergipe and the mouth of the rio Itapicuru in northern Bahia, Brazil. Printes (2005) recorded the species at Lamarão do Passé, extending its range some 200 km further south. Knowledge of this species’ range and conservation status has increased substantially in the recent years (Kobayashi and Langguth 1999; Sousa 2000, 2003; Printes 2005; Jerusalinsky et al. 2006; Sousa et al. in prep). The taxon has now been confirmed at at least 70 sites in the states of Bahia and Sergipe. The largest is a 3,000 ha tract in São Francisco do Paraguaçu, Bahia; the smallest is a 6 ha fragment in Nossa Senhora da Glória, Sergipe (Sousa 2003). The sites where this species has been confirmed encompass an estimated total area of 15,400 ha (154 km²), 4,800 ha of this in Sergipe, and 10,600 ha in Bahia (Sousa et al. in prep).

The lower Paraguaçu forms the limit between the geographic ranges of C. coimbrai, restricted to the left or north bank, and C. melanochir, found on the right bank. Further west, in the region of Feira de Santana, C. barbarabrownae occurs on both banks of the Paraguaçu. There does not appear to be a physical barrier between the eastern limit of the range of C. barbarabrownae and the western limit of C. coimbrai (Printes et al. in prep.). Further surveys are needed.
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Jerusalinsky et al. (2006) calculated that (based on very generous estimates of four individuals per group and five groups/km²), the 30 confirmed sites in the State of Sergipe (covering approximately 5,000 ha), would contain a theoretical population of approximately 1,000 individuals. Using the same calculations, and taking only total area into account, the estimated total population of C. coimbrai in both Sergipe and Bahia would be as high as 2,000 individuals. However, as the area of occupancy is split into 70 separate fragments, over half of which are 100 ha or less, a more realistic estimate of total population is likely to be in the range of 500-1000 individuals.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species occurs in primary tropical rainforest, seasonal and dry forests, and forests with a Caatinga influence.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): An inhabitant of Brazil's Atlantic Forest, a region of widespread deforestation where only an estimated 5-10% of original cover remains distributed in isolated fragments. Cattle ranching, agriculture and continuing urbanization are the main threats. The area is characterized by rapid development facilitated by an extensive network of highways. In addition to loss of habitat, other threats include potential dangers from roads and power-lines and predation by domestic pets. The small fragmented populations of titi monkeys are exposed to synergistic genetic and demographic risks. Hunting pressure needs to be determined, but it is probably moderate due to the small body size. During extensive surveys, a few individuals were found being kept as pets (Jerusalinsky et al. 2006; Printes et al. in prep).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: A state protected area "Refúgio de Vida Silvestre Mata do Junco" was created in December 2007. This protected area was created in part to protect Callicebus coimbrai. The distribution of the species appears to occur within the newly decreed Serra de Itaiana National Park, although its presence has yet to be confirmed at this site (Jerusalinsky et al. 2006). At both state and municipal levels, less specific initiatives have already been implemented; more are being planned, including privately owned reserves.
It is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Bibliography [top]

Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Câmara, I. de G. 1996. Os Limites Originais do Bioma Mata Atlântica na Região Nordeste do Brasil. Fundação Brasileira para a Conservação da Natureza, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

de Sousa, M. C. 2000. New localities for Coimbra-Filho’s titi monkey, Callicebus coimbrai, in North-east Brazil. Neotropical Primates 8: 151.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Hershkovitz, P. 1963. A systematic and zoogeographic account of the monkeys of the genus Callicebus (Cebidae) of Amazonas and Orinoco river basins. Mammalia 27(1): 1-79.

Hershkovitz, P. 1988. Origin, speciation, and distribution of South American titi monkeys, genus Callicebus (Family Cebidae, Platyrrhini). Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140(1): 240-272.

Hershkovitz, P. 1990. Titis, New World monkeys of the genus Callicebus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary taxonomic review. Fieldiana: Zoology 55: 1-109.

Kinzey, W. G. 1982. Distribution of primates and forest refuges. In: G. T. Prance (ed.), Biological Diversification in the Tropics, pp. 455-482. Columbia University Press, New York, USA.

Kobayashi, S. 1995. A phylogenetic study of titi monkeys, genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: I. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101-120.

Kobayashi, S and Langguth, A. 1999. A new species of titi monkeys, Callicebus Thomas, from north-eastern Brazil (Primates, Cebidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 16(2): 531-551.

Kobayashi, S. and Langguth, A. L. 1994. New titi monkey from Brazil. Handbook and Abstracts, XV Congress of the International Primatological Society, pp. 166. Kuta, Bali, Indonesia.

Marinho Filho, J. and Veríssimo, E. W. 1997. The rediscovery of Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae in northeastern Brazil with a new western limit to its distribution. Primates 38(4): 429-433.

Printes, R. C. 2007. Avaliação taxonômica, distribuição e status do guigó-da-Caatinga Callicebus barbarabrownae Hershkovitz, 1990 (Primates: Pitheciidae). Ph.D. Thesis, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.

Printes, R. C., Jerusalinsky, L., Cardoso de Sousa, M. and Rodrigues, L. R. R. In prep.. Zoogeography, Genetic Variation and Conservation of the Callicebus personatus Group. In: A. A. Barnett, L. M. Veiga, S. F. Ferrari and M. A. Norconk (eds), Evolutionary Biology and Conservation of Titis, Sakis and Uacaris, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Sousa, M. C. 2003. Distribuição do guigó (Callicebus coimbrai) no Estado de Sergipe. Neotropical Primates 11: 89–91.

Sousa, M. C., Santos, S. S. and Valente M. C. M. In prep.. Distribuição e variação na pelagem de Callicebus coimbrai (Primates, Pitheciidae) nos Estados de Sergipe e Bahia, Brasil.

Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T. and Mittermeier, R.A. 2002. A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10: 1-52.

Citation: Veiga, L.M., Sousa, M.C., Jerusalinsky, L., Ferrari, S.F., de Oliveira, M.M., Santos, S.S.D., Valente, M.C.M. & Printes, R.C. 2008. Callicebus coimbrai. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 30 July 2015.
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