|Scientific Name:||Saguinus imperator|
|Species Authority:||(Goeldi, 1907)|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Taxonomy follows Hershkovitz (1977, 1979a).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Rylands, A.B. & Mittermeier, R.A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Least Concern as the species is widespread, common, and there are no major threats resulting in any significant population decline. However, its status may require revisiting in future as parts of its formerly remote range become more accessible.
|Range Description:||There are two recognized subspecies:
Saguinus imperator imperator (Brazil, Peru)
South-western Amazon, east of the upper Rio Purus, between the Purus and the Rio Acre (Hershkovitz, 1979). Izawa and Bejarano (1981) did not record S. i. imperator for Bolivia, but reported an isolated population on the left bank of the Rio Acre, in the basin of the Rio São Pedro in Brazil, in an area otherwise occupied by S. l. labiatus. Encarnación and Castro (1990) found populations of S. i. imperator (but not S. l. labiatus) on the right and left banks of the Rio Acre near the Quebrada Río Branco, approximately 20 km west of Inapari, close to the region indicated by Izawa and Bejarano (1981). The population on the south bank of the Río Acre is evidently highly restricted, the subspecies not having been found anywhere else further south in Peru despite a number of surveys (Castro et al. 1990). It is not known how far it extends into Peru along the Rio Acre, nor whether it occurs between the Rio Purus and Pauiní and the Rios Purus and Ituxí (Hershkovitz 1979).
Saguinus imperator subgrisescens Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
South-western Amazon, in Brazil along the east (right bank) of the upper Rio Juruá east to the Rios Tarauacá and Juruparí, to the Brazil/Peruvian frontier. Into Peru, west from the Juruá headwaters, it occurs as far as the foothills of the Andes in the upper Río Ucayali, east of the mouth of the Río Apurimac and to the south of the Ríos Urubamba and Inuya. Its range extends east into Bolivia on both sides of the Río Madre de Dios (Izawa 1979). It is probably limited to the south of the Río Tahuamanú. Izawa and Bejarano (1981) reported it only from the Río Muyumanu basin, a south bank tributary of the Río Tahuamanú. Castro et al. (1990) found that it was absent from the area between Iñapari (just south of the Río Acre) and Iberia (north bank of the Río Tahuamanú) in Peru where S. l. labiatus occurs. Aquino and Encarnación (1994) extended the range indicated by Hershkovitz (1979) east to the basin of the Río Tambopata to the Bolivian border, indicating that the Río Madidi, an eastern tributary of the Río Beni in Bolivia, may mark the southern limit to this species.
Native:Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil (Acre, Amazonas); Colombia (Colombia (mainland)); Peru
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Population densities in Manu National Park have been estimated at 8-12 individuals/km² (Terborgh and Janson 1985).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The Emperor Tamarin occurs in Amazonian lowland and lower montane rain forests, seasonally flooded forest, remnant forests or fringe patches and secondary forest (Terborgh 1983).
Marmosets and tamarins are distinguished from the other monkeys of the New World by their small size, modified claws rather than nails on all digits except the big toe, the presence of two as opposed to three molar teeth in either side of each jaw, and by the occurrence of twin births. They eat fruits, flowers, nectar, plant exudates (gums, saps, latex) and animal prey (including frogs, snails, lizards, spiders and insects). Marmosets have morphological and behavioural adaptations for gouging trees trunks, branches and vines of certain species to stimulate the flow of gum, which they eat, and in some species form a notable component of the diet. The dentition of the tamarins (Saguinus and Leontopithecus) does not provide for gouging and they eat gums only when readily available.
Tamarins live in extended family groups of between four and 15 individuals, but usually 2-8. Average group size recorded by Terborgh (1983; Terborgh and Janson 1985) was 8-10 individuals. Generally, only one female per group breeds. Home range size found to be about 30 ha, in Manu National Park (Terborgh 1983).
Emperor Tamarins tend to form mixed-species groups with the smaller, sympatric saddleback tamarins: Saguinus fuscicollis (Heymann and Buchanan-Smith 2000). The Emperor Tamarins travel higher in the forest, spending more time in the lower and middle canopy, above 10 m, whereas the saddlebacks spend more time foraging and travlleing at 10 m or lower. Azevedo Lopes and Rehg (2003) observed S. imperator travelling with Callimico in the Serra do Divisor Nastional Park, Acre, Brazil.
Adult 500 g (Terborgh 1983)
Adult 474 g (Smith and Ungers 1997).
|Major Threat(s):||Much of the range of Saguinus imperator, previously remote, is increasingly subject to progressive deforestation largely as a result of colonization along highways, associated with logging and cattle ranching (Rylands et al. 1993). The species is probably not hunted, but they may be subject to some trade as pets.|
Saguinus imperator is included on the national official lists of threatened species of both Brazil and Peru. It is listed on Appendix II of CITES.
The Rio Acre Ecological Station (77,500 ha) is within the distribution described by Hershkovitz (1979). It probably also occurs in a number of other protected areas, including the Chico Mendes Extractivist Reserve (970,570 ha), the Macauá National Forest (173,475 ha), and the Macauá and Antimari State Forests to the north, all lying between the Rios Acre and Purus, although none of them are specifically for the preservation of wildlife.
Saguinus i. subgrisescens has a larger range than S. i. imperator, and is protected in the Manu National Park (1,532,806 ha) in south-eastern Peru (Terborgh 1983; Terborgh and Goldizen 1985; Terborgh and Janson 1985). There are no protected areas within its range in Brazil, but in Bolivia it occurs in the Manuripí Heath Nature Reserve (1,844,375 ha) in the Pando region.
Aquino, R. and Encarnación, F. 1994. Primates of Peru / Los Primates del Perú. Primate Report 40: 1-127.
Azevedo Lopes, M. A. O. and Rehg, J. A. 2003. Observation of Callimico goeldii with Saguinus imperator in the Serra do Divisor National Park, Acre, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 11(3): 181-183.
Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Hardie, S. M., Caceres, C. and Prescott, M. J. 2000. Distribution and forest utilization of Saguinus and other primates of the Pando Department, northern Bolivia. International Journal of Primatology 21(3): 353-379.
Castro, N., Encarnación, F., Valverde, L., Ugamoto, M. and Maruyama, E. 1990. Censo de primates no humanos en el sur oriente peruano: Iberia e Iñapari (Departamento de Madre de Dios), Junio 29 - Setiembre 16, 1980. La Primatologia en el Perú. Proyecto Peruano de Primatología "Manuel Morro Sommo", Lima, Peru.
Encarnación, F. and Castro, N. 1990. Informe preliminar sobre censo de primates no humanos en el sur oriente peruano: Iberia e Iñapari (Departamento de Madre de Dios), Mayo 15 - Junio 14, 1978. In: M. M. Sommo (ed.), La Primatologia en el Perú. Proyecto Peruano de Primatología, pp. 57-67. Lima, Peru.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World monkeys (Platyrrhini), with an introduction to Primates. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Hershkovitz, P. 1979. Races of the emperor tamarin, Saguinus imperator Goeldi (Callitrichidae, Primates). Primates 20(2): 277–287.
Heymann, E. W. and Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 2000. The behavioural ecology of mixed species troops of callitrichine primates. Biological Reviews 75: 169-190.
Izawa, K. 1979. Studies on peculiar distribution pattern of Callimico.
Izawa, K. and Bejarano, G. 1981. Distribution ranges and patterns of nonhuman primates in western Pando, Bolivia. Kyoto University Overseas Research Reports of New World Monkeys 1981: 1-12.
Rylands, A. B., Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1993. Systematics, distributions, and some notes on the conservation status of the Callitrichidae. In: A. B. Rylands (ed.), Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour and Ecology, pp. 11-77. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Smith, R. J. and Jungers, W. L. 1997. Body mass in comparative primatology. Journal of Human Evolution 32: 523-559.
Terborgh, J. 1983. Five New World Primates: A Study in Comparative Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.
Terborgh, J. and Goldizen, A. W. 1985. On the mating system of cooperatively breeding saddle-back tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 16: 293-299.
Terborgh, J. and Janson, C. H. 1985. Ecologia de los primates en el sureste peruano. In: M. A. Ríos (ed.), Reporte Manu, pp. 10 pp.. Centro de Datos para la Conservación, Universidad Agraria, La Molina, Lima, Peru.
|Citation:||Rylands, A.B. & Mittermeier, R.A. 2008. Saguinus imperator. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 October 2014.|
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