|Scope: Global & Europe|
|Scientific Name:||Pieris wollastoni (Butler, 1886)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species is considered as a subspecies of Pieris brassicae by some authors.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) B1ab(v) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||van Swaay, C., Wynhoff, I., Verovnik, R., Wiemers, M., López Munguira, M., Maes, D., Sasic, M., Verstrael, T., Warren, M. & Settele, J.|
|Reviewer(s):||Lewis, O. (Butterfly RLA) & Cuttelod, A. (IUCN Red List Unit)|
This species is restricted to the island of Madeira. It has not been reported since the 1970s despite several visits of lepidopterists to its former habitat. An adequate survey is needed to define if the species is extinct or not. It is therefore assessed as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).
|Date last seen:||1970s|
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is restricted to the island of Madeira. This is a European endemic species.|
Possibly extinct:Portugal (Madeira)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The Madeiran Large White is an extremely local species, restricted to the island of Madeira. In the 1970s, it was considered rare. There are some reports from the 1980s, in which lepidopterists reported it to be widely distributed, but searches for this species in the early 1990s were unsuccessful. As the species has not been seen on this relatively small island for at least 20 years, it is believed to probably be extinct.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This butterfly was mostly found in north-exposed valleys in the Laurisilva forests on Madeira. They occurred in many habitat types where the larval hostplant grows in abundance and where many nectar-rich plants, such as thistles and knapweed, were available as a source of nectar. The females deposited the eggs in batches on the leaves of diverse genera and species of crucifers, such as Caper (Capparis spinosa) and Tropaelum majus. The caterpillars lived in small groups, dispersing in the later instars, when they were ready to pupate. Hibernation took place in the pupal stage. This butterfly produced several generation a year and could be found from March until late October. Detailed habitat descriptions are not available.|
|Use and Trade:||All butterflies are collected to some extent, but only for the extremely rare species it can be a problem and the trade in Europe is generally at a low level compared to other continents. There is no specific trade information for this species.|
|Major Threat(s):||The causes for the decline of Pieris wollastoni are unknown, but Gardiner (2003) proposed the introduction of diseases and Lozan et al. (2008) the introduction of the alien parasitoid Cotesia glomerata as possible causes.|
|Conservation Actions:||A well coordinated search for the species should be conducted to make sure that there is not a population left somewhere on the island. If a remaining population is found, immediate research on the ecology and conservation should be carried out.|
Gardiner, B. 2003. The possible cause of extinction of Pieris brassicae wollastoni Butler (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Entomologist's Gazette 54: 267–268.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.1). Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 March 2010).
Lace, L.A.; Jones, M.J. 1984. Habitat preferences and status of the Madeiran butterfly fauna. Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal 36(162): 162-176.
Lozan, A.I.; Monaghan, M.T.; Spitzer, K.; Jaroš, J.; Žurovcová, M.; Brozcaron;, V. 2008. DNA-based confirmation that the parasitic wasp Cotesia glomerata (Braconidae, Hymenoptera) is a new threat to endemic butterflies of the Canary Islands. Conservation Genetics 9(6): 1431-1437.
Meyer, M. 1993. Die Ledidoptera der makaronesischen Region III. Die Tagfalter des nördlichen Makaronesiens (Madereira, Azoren) aus biogeographischer Sicht. Atalanta 24(1/4): 121-162.
Oehmig, S. 1979. Über die Präimaginalstadien von Pararge aegeria, Pararge xiphia und Pieris brassicae wollastoni (Lep.: Satyridae, Pieridae) = The preimaginal stages of Pararge aegeria, Pararge xiphia an d Pieris brassicae wollastoni (Lep.: Satyridae, Pieridae). Entomologische Zeitschrift 89(7): 73-76.
|Citation:||van Swaay, C., Wynhoff, I., Verovnik, R., Wiemers, M., López Munguira, M., Maes, D., Sasic, M., Verstrael, T., Warren, M. & Settele, J. 2010. Pieris wollastoni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T39483A10240995.Downloaded on 17 August 2018.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|