Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Chondrichthyes Carcharhiniformes Carcharhinidae

Scientific Name: Carcharhinus hemiodon
Species Authority: (Müller & Henle, 1839)
Common Name(s):
English Pondicherry Shark

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) A2acd; C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2003
Date Assessed: 2003-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Compagno, L.J.V., White, W. & Fowler, S. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003)
Reviewer(s): Cavanagh, R.D., Kyne, P.M., Fowler, S., Musick, J.A. (Shark Red List Authority) & Pogonoski, J.
Previously assessed as Vulnerable, this species has been reassessed based on improved information.

This very rare Indo-West Pacific species is known from about 20 specimens in museums, obtained from widely separated sites all of which are subject to large, expanding and unregulated artisanal and commercial 'catch all' fisheries. Last recorded in 1979, the species has not been reported since, despite market surveys in much of its range in recent years. Given that it has not be observed in over 20 years, that most known specimens were captured before 1900, and that its previously known habitat and area of occurrence face expanding unregulated fisheries, this species is listed as Critically Endangered. Future survey work should attempt to locate the species.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2000 Vulnerable (VU)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This Indo-West Pacific species has only been recorded from a small number of widely-separated sites (most of them in India) and is represented by fewer than twenty specimens in museum collections, most of which were captured before 1900. The last record was in 1979 in India; it has not been seen since anywhere, despite detailed surveys in Borneo, Philippines and Indonesia.
Countries occurrence:
Possibly extinct:
China; India; Indonesia (Kalimantan); Malaysia; Oman; Pakistan
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Considered to be extremely rare globally (possibly even extinct).
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Occurs inshore on continental and insular shelves. No information available on the biology or life history parameters of this rarely recorded and poorly known inshore shark.
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This apparently rare shark occurs (or occurred) in inshore localities and habitats subject to large, expanding, and unregulated artisanal and commercial fisheries. If still extant, it is probably caught and utilized as bycatch of other fisheries, although market surveys have failed to locate it. Its populations are thought to have been severely depleted as a result of this exploitation.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No conservation measures are in place for this species.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.1. Marine Neritic - Pelagic
suitability: Unknown  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.9. Marine Neritic - Seagrass (Submerged)
suitability: Unknown  
10. Marine Oceanic -> 10.1. Marine Oceanic - Epipelagic (0-200m)
suitability: Unknown  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over part of range
  Occur in at least one PA:No
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:Not Applicable
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing    

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.4. Unintentional effects: (large scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing    

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Volume 4, Part 1.

Compagno, L.J.V. In prep. b. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the shark species known to date. Volume 3. (Carcharhiniformes). FAO Species Catalogue for Fisheries Purposes No. 1, Vol.3. FAO, Rome.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2003. 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 18 November 2003.

IUCN SSC Shark Specialist Group. Specialist Group website. Available at:

Munro, I.S.R. 1958. The fishes of the New Guinea region. A check-list of the fishes of New Guinea incorporating records of species collected by the Fisheries Survey Vessel "Fairwind" during the years 1948 to 1950. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Fisheries Bulletin No. 1. Department of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries, Port Moresby.

Citation: Compagno, L.J.V., White, W. & Fowler, S. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003). 2003. Carcharhinus hemiodon. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2003: e.T39369A10185838. . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.
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