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Ravenea rivularis 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Arecales Palmae

Scientific Name: Ravenea rivularis
Species Authority: Jum. & H.Perrier
Common Name(s):
English Majestic Palm, Majesty Palm

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2010-12-17
Assessor(s): Rakotoarinivo, M. & Dransfield, J.
Reviewer(s): Baker, W.J., Beentje, H.J. & Bachman, S., Baker, W.J. & Beentje, H.J.
Justification:
Known from four fragmented sites in the southwest of Madagascar with an extent of occurrence of 2,122 km² and an area of occupancy of 144 km². The species may be locally abundant, however, about 900 mature trees are estimated for the whole distribution range. The subpopulation in Isalo is on the margin of the national park and those in Analavelona occur in a taboo area. There is continuing decline in the extent and quality of the habitat and in mature individuals due to the various threats. This is one of the most popular palm species from Madagascar in international horticulture, and although there are strict trade regulations in place, illegal harvest of seed from the wild still occurs.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1998 Vulnerable (VU)
1998 Vulnerable (V)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Endemic to the southwest of Madagascar, between Isalo, Sakaraha and Analavelona mountains.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Madagascar
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 144
Number of Locations: 4
Lower elevation limit (metres): 300
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1000
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: About 900 mature trees are estimated across all the known sites and the population is declining
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 900 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Population severely fragmented: Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Usually found on river-banks in lowland forest, but also grows in shallow and slow moving water. Recorded from 300 up to 1,000 m.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This is one of the most sought after Madagascan palm species in international horticulture. Seed is harvested from the wild for trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The threats to this species include habitat loss through clearance for shifting agriculture, logging, and mining for sapphires. Seeds are harvested from the wild for the horticultural trade and this may impact the regeneration potential of the species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is listed on CITES Appendix II. The subpopulation at Isalo is on the margin of the national park and those in Analavelona occur in a taboo area. Monitoring of the harvesting is required and possible additional enforcement of the controls.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:No
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.3. Trade trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Dransfield, J. and Beentje, H. 1995. The Palms of Madagascar. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and The International Palm Society, Richmond.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 October 2012).


Citation: Rakotoarinivo, M. & Dransfield, J. 2012. Ravenea rivularis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T38677A2882907. . Downloaded on 12 February 2016.
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