|Scientific Name:||Acalypha rubrinervis|
Acalypha rubra Roxb. in Beatson non Willd. nec Wight ex Wallich
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Extinct ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Lambdon, P.W. & Ellick, S.|
The Stringwood (Acalypha rubrinervis) was last recorded between 1855 and 1875, as a single individual transplanted to cultivation at Oakbank. The Central Ridge, which extends for less than 10 kilometres, has now been extensively explored and there is little chance of further individuals remaining undetected.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Stringwood was formerly endemic to the island of St Helena, South Atlantic Ocean, where probably confined to the Central Ridge.|
Very little is known about the former range of this species. In the 19th Century it was recorded from the Diana’s Peak area, Cason’s and near ‘Round Tower’ (a locality now obscure), though it was undoubtedly already very rare. The named sites suggest a preference for high elevations (700 m and above) on the Central Ridge, but it is possible that it formerly also extended to lower altitudes where almost complete deforestation had already occurred.
Regionally extinct:Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (Saint Helena (main island))
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Stringwood was a monoecious shrub, evidently wind-pollinated, with long male catkins. The solitary female flowers matured into red capsules containing 3 seeds which were moderately large for an Acalypha species and had no obvious means of dispersal, unless by some long-extinct bird species. The few recorded localities appear to have been amongst cloud forest vegetation, dominated by Tree Ferns (Dicksonia arborescens L'Hér) and cabbage trees.|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Habitat loss undoubtedly played a major part in the species’ extinction. However, fragments of cloud forest, still supporting a rich endemic flora, persist until the present day, and the reason for the uninhibited decline within these stronghold remain unknown.|
Beatson, A. 1816. An alphabetical list of plants seen by Dr Roxburgh growing on the island of St Helena. Tracts relative to the Island of St Helena, Appendix 1. W.Bulmer & Co., London, U.K.
Burchell, W.J. 1805-10. Flora Insulae Sanctae Helenae. Unpublished manuscript held at Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Richmond, U.K.
Cronk, Q.C.B. 2000. The Endemic Flora of St. Helena. Anthony Nelson Publishers, Oswestry, UK.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).
Lambdon, P. 2012. Flowering plants and ferns of St Helena. Pisces Publications, Newbury, U.K.
Melliss, J.C. 1875. St Helena: A physical, historical and topographical description of the island, including its geology, fauna, flora and meteorology. L. Reeve & Co., London, U.K.
Melliss, J.C. 1875. St Helena: A Physical, Historical and Topographical Description of the Island, Including its Geology, Fauna, Flora and Meteorology. L. Reeve & Co., London, U.K.
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2011. Data extracted from notes accompanying collection of herbarium specimens. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, U.K.
|Citation:||Lambdon, P.W. & Ellick, S. 2016. Acalypha rubrinervis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T37854A67371775.Downloaded on 20 January 2017.|
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