|Scientific Name:||Canis aureus|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Jhala, Y. & Moehlman, P.D.|
|Reviewer/s:||Sillero-Zubiri, C. & Hoffmann, M. (Canid Red List Authority)|
The Golden Jackal is a widespread species. It is fairly common throughout its range with high densities observed in areas with abundant food and cover. A minimum population estimate of over 80,000 is estimated for the Indian sub-continent. Population estimates for Africa are not available. Due to their tolerance of dry habitats and their omnivorous diet, the golden jackal can live in a wide variety of habitats. They are opportunistic and will venture into human habitation at night to feed on garbage.
|Range Description:||The Golden Jackal is widespread in North and north-east Africa, occurring from Senegal on the west coast of Africa to Egypt in the east, in a range that includes Morocco, Algeria, and Libya in the north to Nigeria, Chad and Tanzania in the south. They also occur in the Arabian Peninsula and have expanded their range into Europe, where they have a patchy distribution, being resident in the Balkans and, since recent times, in Hungary and south-western Ukraine. It is regularly found as a vagrant in Austria, Slovakia, Slovenia and north-eastern Italy (Kryštufek 1999). Eastwards they range into Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Central Asia, the entire Indian subcontinent, then east and south to Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand and parts of Indo-China.|
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Bahrain; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Central African Republic; Croatia; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Greece; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kenya; Kuwait; Lebanon; Libya; Mali; Mauritania; Morocco; Myanmar; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Syrian Arab Republic; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; United Arab Emirates; Viet Nam; Western Sahara; Yemen
Vagrant:Austria; Italy; Slovakia; Slovenia
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The Golden Jackal is fairly common throughout its range. High densities are observed in areas with abundant food and cover. In several parts of India, high densities of low-quality cattle are maintained. Due to religious beliefs, most people do not consume beef, and cattle carcasses are freely available for scavenging.
In India, jackal populations achieve high densities in pastoral areas such as Kutch, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Haryana. Based on intensive observations on breeding pack units and radio-collared individuals, jackal densities in the semi-arid Velavadar National Park were estimated between one and two jackals per km² (Y. Jhala et al., unpubl.); see Sharma (1998) for densities quoted for the Thar Desert in India. On the African continent, in the Serengeti National Park, densities can range as high as four adults per km² (Moehlman 1983, 1986, 1989).
Based on known density estimates for parts of India and considering that about 19% (i.e., about 637,000 km²) of the geographical area of India has forest cover with jackal populations (and that jackals are also found outside forested habitats), a minimum population estimate of over 80,000 Golden Jackals would not be unreasonable for the Indian sub-continent. Population estimates for Africa are not available.
|Habitat and Ecology:||Due to their tolerance of dry habitats and their omnivorous diet, the Golden Jackal can live in a wide variety of habitats. These range from the Sahel Desert to the evergreen forests of Myanmar and Thailand. They occupy semi-desert, short to medium grasslands and savannas in Africa; and forested, mangrove, agricultural, rural and semi-urban habitats in India and Bangladesh (Clutton-Brock et al. 1976; Poche et al. 1987; Y. Jhala, pers. obs.). Golden Jackals are opportunistic and will venture into human habitation at night to feed on garbage. Jackals have been recorded at elevations of 3,800 m in the Bale Mountains of Ethiopia (Sillero-Zubiri 1996) and are well established around hill stations at 2,000 m in India (Prater 1980).|
|Major Threat(s):||Over its entire range, except in protected areas like National Parks and Sanctuaries, the jackal population is steadily declining. Traditional land use practices, like livestock rearing and dry farming that were conducive to the survival of jackals and other wildlife, are being steadily replaced by industrialization and intensive agriculture; wilderness areas and rural landscapes are being rapidly urbanized. Jackal populations adapt to some extent to this change and may persist for a while, but eventually disappear from such areas like other wildlife. There are no other known threats, except for local policies of extirpation and poisoning (for example, Israel and Morocco). Jackals may occasionally be hunted as a game species and eaten, as has been recorded in Morocco (F. Cuzin pers. comm. 2007). There is no significant trade in jackal products, although skins and tails are occasionally sold.|
Golden jackals are present in all protected areas of India except for those in the high elevation regions of the Himalayas. In East Africa, they occur in the Serengeti-Masai Mara-Ngorongoro complex, as well as numerous other conservation units. Thus they have a wide coverage in terms of protected populations.
The species is included in CITES Appendix III (in India). Jackals feature on Schedule III of the Wildlife Protection Act (1972) of India and are afforded the least legal protection (mainly to control trade of pelts and tails). However, no hunting of any wildlife is permitted under the current legal system in India. The golden jackal could be considered as a "species requiring no immediate protection" with caution and knowledge that populations throughout its range are likely declining.
Besides being represented in a wide array of protected areas covering several landscapes, no special species targeted conservation efforts have been undertaken. Almost all zoos in India have golden jackals.
Current or planned research projects include ongoing, long-term studies in the Serengeti, Tanzania; ongoing studies on wolves, jackals, and striped hyaenas in Bhal and Kutch areas of Gujarat, India; and investigation into crop damage, densities and ranging patterns of golden jackals in Bangladesh.
Gaps in knowledge
Little quantitative information is available on jackal densities, habitat use, and ranging patterns in relation to food availability. Information on dispersal, survival and mortality factors of adults, pups and dispersing individuals is needed. Jackal ecology needs to be studied in forested ecosystems of Southeast Asia where a different set of factors are likely to operate affecting food availability, ranging patterns and survival. Aspects of canid diseases in relation to population dynamics of jackals and transmission need to be better understood.
Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (comps and eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Clutton-Brock, J., Corbet, G. B. and Hills, M. 1976. A review of the family Canidae, with a classification by numerical methods. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology 29: 119-199.
Genov, P. and Wassiley, S. 1989. Der schakal (Canis aureus L.) in Bulgarian. Ein beitrag zu seiner verbreitung und biologie. Zeitschrift für Jagdwissenschaft 35: 145-150.
Government of India Ministry of Law, Justice and Company Affairs. 1972. Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. Goverment of India Press, Nasik, India.
Moehlman, P. D. 1983. Socioecology of silverbacked and golden jackals (Canis mesomelas and Canis aureus). Recent advances in the study of mammalian behavior, pp. 423-453. American Society of Mammologists, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, USA.
Moehlman, P. D. 1986. Ecology of cooperation in canids. In: D. I. Rubenstein and R. W. Wrangam (eds), Ecological aspects of social evolution, pp. 64-86. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.
Moehlman, P. D. 1989. Intraspecific variation in canid social systems. In: J. L. Gittleman (ed.), Carnivore behavior, ecology and evolution, pp. 143-163. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA.
Poche, R. M., Evans, S. J., Sultana, P., Haque, M. E, Sterner, R. and Siddique, M. A. 1987. Notes on the golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Bangladesh. Mammalia 51: 259-270.
Prater, S. 1971. The book of Indian animals. Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay, India.
Sharma, I. K. 1998. Habitat preferences, feeding behaviour, adaptations and conservation of the Asiatic jackals (Canis aureus) in the Indian Thar desert. Tiger Paper 25: 11-12.
Sheldon, J. W. 1992. Wild dogs: the natural history of the non-domestic Canidae. Academic Press, Chicago, IL, USA.
Sillero-Zubiri, C. 1996. Records of Honey Badger, Mellivora capensis (Carnivora, Mustelidae), in afroalpine habitat, above 4,000 m. Mammalia 60: 323-325.
Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
|Citation:||Jhala, Y. & Moehlman, P.D. 2008. Canis aureus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 09 March 2014.|
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