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Prunus africana 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Rosales Rosaceae

Scientific Name: Prunus africana
Species Authority: (Hook.f.) Kalkman
Common Name(s):
English Red Stinkwood, African Cherry, African Almond
Synonym(s):
Pygeum africanum Hook.f.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A1cd ver 2.3
Year Published: 1998
Date Assessed: 1998-01-01
Annotations:
Needs updating
Assessor(s): World Conservation Monitoring Centre
Justification:
An unofficial appeal against this listing was published in The Plants of Mount Cameroon. A Conservation Checklist by Martin Cheek (1998). In this he argues that the species is not remotely in danger of extinction, so long as some montane forest survives somewhere within its enormous range. He suggests a rating of LR/nt at best. Further consultation with all parties concerned is required.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Montane Africa (to East and South Africa) and Madagascar. This species is one of about ten Pan-African montane tree species (including e.g., Agauria salicifolia, Ilex mitis and Myrica arborea) and is not remotely in danger of extinction, so long as some montane forest survives somewhere within its enormous range.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Angola (Angola); Burundi; Cameroon; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Equatorial Guinea (Bioko); Ethiopia; Kenya; Lesotho; Madagascar; Mozambique; Rwanda; Sao Tomé and Principe (Sâo Tomé); South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga); South Sudan; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Locally it can be very common.
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Montane forest, usually at about 1800-2200 m alt.
Systems:Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Harvesting of bark for the European medicinal market. On Mt Cameroon as with some other areas within the range of this species, many trees have died as a result of girdling caused by bark removal. The bark from the trees on Mt Cameroon is transported to the Plantecam factory at Mutengene where it is extracted to produce a powder for export to a company in France. A great deal of attention, and funding has been paid by International Conservation organizations to investigate and address this harvest and perhaps for this reason the species has received a high conservation rating. In the opinion of this author, it merits a "Lower Risk, near threatened" at best.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The Mt. Cameroon Project has already conducted a detailed survey of this species on the mountain and has been energetic in developing methods for propagating and replanting it.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Unknown  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

Bibliography [top]

Beentje, H.J. 1994. Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas. National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya.

Cable, S. and Cheek, M. 1998. The Plants of Mount Cameroon, A Conservation Checklist. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Cunningham, A.B. 1991. Development of a conservation policy on commercially exploited medicinal plants: a case study from southern Africa. In: O. Akerele, V. Heywood and H. Synge (eds) Conservation of medicinal plants, pp.337-358. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Cunningham, A.B. and Mbenkum, F.T. 1993. Sustainability of harvesting Prunus africana bark in Cameroon. People and Plants Working Paper 2:1-28.

Friis, I. 1992. Forests and forest trees of Northeast Tropical Africa. Their natural habitats and distribution patterns in Ethiopia, Djibouti and Somalia. HMSO, Middlesex, UK.

Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. and Hepper, F.N. 1927. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Published by the English Ministry of State for the Colonies.

Katende, A.B. 1995. Annotations to: WCMC printout of Trees of Uganda dated 23 Nov. 1995.

Okullo, J.B. et al. 1997. Completed data collection forms for woody plants of Uganda.

Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. (compilers). 1998. The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.

Songwe, C. 1990. Revised preliminary list of timbers of Cameroon with conservation categories.


Citation: World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1998. Prunus africana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1998: e.T33631A9799059. . Downloaded on 27 September 2016.
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