Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Malvales Malvaceae

Scientific Name: Hibiscus waimeae subsp. hannerae
Species Authority: (O.Deg & I.Deg.) D.M.Bates
Parent Species:
Hibiscus waimeae A. Heller subspecies var. hannerae O. Deg. & I. Deg.
Taxonomic Source(s): Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1+2c, C2a, D ver 2.3
Year Published: 1998
Date Assessed: 1998-01-01
Needs updating
Assessor(s): World Conservation Monitoring Centre
Previously published Red List assessments:
1998 Endangered (E)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Confined to Kauai, where two remaining subpopulations occur in adjacent valleys, Limahuli and Hanakapiai, on the north coast. An additional subpopulation in Kalihiwai appears to be extinct.
Countries occurrence:
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: After Hurricane Iniki, the subpopulation in Hanakapiai Valley was halved to about 25 plants. The second population consists of between 50 and 100 plants.
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: A rainforest tree.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The lowland rainforest habitat is frequently damaged by feral pigs and invaded by introduced plants.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is listed under the US Endangered Species Act.

Classifications [top]

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Sus domesticus)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

Bibliography [top]

Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. (compilers). 1998. The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1996. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; determination of endangered or threatened status for nineteen plant species from the island of Kauai, Hawaii. U.S. Federal Register 61(198): 53070-53089.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1997. Draft Kauai II: Addendum to the recovery plan for the Kauai plant cluster. Portland, Oregon: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Wagner, W., Herbst, D. and Sohmer, S. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press, Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.

Citation: World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1998. Hibiscus waimeae subsp. hannerae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1998: e.T33627A9798772. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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