Tangalin, N. & Wood, K.
Clark, M. & Bruegmann, M.
Frances, A. & Schatz, G.E.
This taxon is Critically Endangered due to its low number of individuals, small population size, and continued decline (criterion C). There are approximately 80 mature individuals, in three severely fragmented subpopulations, with each subpopulation comprising 50 or fewer mature individuals. This taxon can be considered Critically Endangered due to its small extent of occurrence and area of occupancy, a severely fragmented population and continuing decline (criterion B). Extent of occurrence is approximately 1.6 km2. Number of locations is two because threats are different between the Limahuli subpopulations and the other two subpopulations. The Limahuli subpopulation is in the Limahuli Preserve, which is protected (fenced) and the other two subpopulations are not. The two adjacent subpopulations are close enough to not be considered severely fragmented. A variety of non-native invasive plant and animals species contribute to the decline in habitat quality as well as decline in the numbers of individuals, subpopulations, area of occupancy, and extent of occurrence. This taxon may also be considered Endangered due to the small numbers of mature individuals (criterion D).
This taxon is confined to the Hawaiian island of Kauai, where three remaining subpopulations occur. Two subpopulations are in adjacent valleys, Limahuli and Hanakapiai on the north coast. A small subpopulation was discovered further south along the Napali Coast in Pohakuao Valley in 2001. An additional subpopulation in Kalihiwai appears to be extinct. This subspecies occurs between 189 and 560 m elevation.
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
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Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):
There are three subpopulations of this taxon. Two subpopulations are in adjacent valleys, Limahuli and Hanakapiai on the north coast of Kauai. A small subpopulation was discovered further south along the Napali Coast in Pohakuao Valley in 2001. An additional subpopulation in Kalihiwai appears to be extinct. After Hurricane Iniki in 1992, the subpopulation in Hanakapiai Valley was halved to about 25 plants. Currently there are about 20 plants in this subpopulation. The subpopulation in Limahuli Valley consists of approximately 50 mature individuals, and there are approximately 10 mature individuals in Pohakuao Valley. A portion of the Limahuli subpopulation is enclosed in an ungulate proof fence. The threat of feral pigs uniformly affects the rest of the population.
The lowland rainforest habitat is frequently damaged by feral pigs (Sus domesticus) and invaded by introduced invasive plants, such as Clidemia hirta, Lantana camara, Psidium guajava, Erigeron karvinskianum. These threats contribute to habitat degradation in addition to direct impacts on the individual plants. A possible loss of pollinators and a genetic bottle neck may also contribute to the decline of this species.
The species is listed as Endangered under the US Endangered Species Act and is also protected under the state of Hawaii's Endangered Species List. It occurs on state-owned land which has some protection against development, but is managed for multiple uses including recreational hunting. It also occurs on privately-owned land in which a portion of one subpopulation is fenced and the remainder is planned to be fenced in the near future. The fenced area has had all feral ungulates removed and has invasive, non-native plant management as well.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1996. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; determination of endangered or threatened status for nineteen plant species from the island of Kauai, Hawaii. U.S. Federal Register 61(198): 53070-53089.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1997. Draft Kauai II: Addendum to the recovery plan for the Kauai plant cluster. Portland, Oregon: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Wagner, W., Herbst, D. and Sohmer, S. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press, Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.
Tangalin, N. & Wood, K. 2015. Hibiscus waimeae subsp. hannerae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T33627A78767630. . Downloaded on 08 February 2016.
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