Abies fanjingshanensis 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Abies fanjingshanensis
Species Authority: W.L.Huang, Y.L.Tu & S.Z.Fang
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.
Taxonomic Notes: This species is closely related to Abies fargesii and is possibly only a subspecies, even though it occurs at least 500 km to the south of the nearest occurrence of A. fargesii in the NW of Hubei. Both Farjon (1990) and Flora of China 4 (1999: 46) have recognized it as a distinct species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(v); C2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2010-12-13
Assessor(s): Yang, Y., Zhang, D, Li, N., Luscombe, D & Rushforth, K.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Farjon, A.
Abies fanjingshanensis' extent of occurrence is less than 20 km2, it is known from 2-5 locations (there is part of the mountain which is not impacted by the acid rain), and there is a continuing decline in the number of mature individuals. The population size is less than 2,500 mature individuals and all of these are in one subpopulation which is undergoing continuing decline. The species therefore qualifies as Endangered under the B and C criteria.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1998 Endangered (EN)
1998 Endangered (E)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: A relict species occurring only in inaccessible areas on Fanjing Shan Mountain, near Jiangkou in NE Guizhou, China.
Countries occurrence:
China (Guizhou)
Number of Locations: 1
Lower elevation limit (metres): 2100
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2300
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Is locally common, but many trees have died due to the impacts of acid rain. The population is estimated to number about 17,000 trees, but the number of mature trees is probably less than 2,500 (<10% of the population).
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 249 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Population severely fragmented: No
All individuals in one subpopulation: Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This rare species has been found on Mt. Fanjing (Wuling Shan) at 2,100-2,300 m a.s.l. The climate on this mountain is cool and moist, with only a short summer season at this altitude. The species occurs there in a mixed forest with, among other species, Tsuga chinensis, Acer flabellatum, Rhododendron hypoglaucum, Enkiartnus chinensis and Prunus serrulata. Only a few Abies trees are found scattered in the forest.
Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 30

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Although potentially a timber tree, this species does not appear to be exploited at present.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

Only known from a single locality with a small population in forest dominated by other tree species. Mt. Fanjing has a forest reserve which includes this species. The population has been in decline for some time because of the impacts of acid rain presumably caused by air pollution. The acid rain problem is ongoing.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

The entire population occurs within a forest reserve.  Attempts are required to identify the source/s of the pollution which are resulting in acid rain to see if any mitigation measures can be taken. There is a botanic garden in Guizhou Province which has this species in cultivation and they have an ex situ cultivation programme underway

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):91-100
  Area based regional management plan:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
9. Pollution -> 9.5. Air-borne pollutants -> 9.5.1. Acid rain
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Farjon, A. 1990. Pinaceae. Drawings and descriptions of the genera Abies, Cedrus, Pseudolarix, Keteleeria, Nothotsuga, Tsuga, Cathaya, Pseudotsuga, Larix and Picea. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany.

Farjon, A. 2010. Conifer Database (June 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2010 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., eds). Reading, UK Available at:

Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Li-kuo, F. and Jian-ming, J. 1992. China Plant Red Data Book – Rare and Endangered Plants 1. Science Press, Beijing.

Wu, Z. and Raven, P.H. (eds). 1999. Flora of China: Vol.4. Cycadaceae through Fagaceae. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden (St. Louis).

Citation: Yang, Y., Zhang, D, Li, N., Luscombe, D & Rushforth, K. 2013. Abies fanjingshanensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T32463A2819476. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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