|Scientific Name:||Araucaria araucana|
|Species Authority:||(Molina) K.Koch|
Pinus araucana Molina
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B2ab(ii,iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Premoli, A., Quiroga, P. & Gardner, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Thomas, P. & Farjon, A.|
Araucaria araucana has an actual area of occupancy (AOO) of 392.51 km² which falls within the threshold for Endangered under criterion B2. Within the Andes and the Coastal Cordillera of Chile the population is severely fragmented and there is a continuing decline in its AOO due to a range of debilitating factors including fire, logging and overgrazing. Consequently it is assessed as EN B2ab(ii,iii,v).
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
Native to south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina where it has a relatively limited distribution spanning three degrees of latitude from 37º20' to 40º20'S (Veblen et al. 1995). Its distribution is split between the main area straddling both sides of the Andes and two other disjunct small subpopulations in Cordillera de Nahuelbuta in Chile. The total actual area of occupancy (AOO) in Argentina and Chile is 392.51 km2.
Chile: It occurs from Region VIII (Province Biobío, 37º20’S) south to Region X (Province Valdivia, 40º20’S). In this area it has an actual AOO of 253.71 km2 (Echeverría et al. 2004) with 97% of the population in the Andes. The small subpopulations in the coastal Cordillera de Nahuelbuta in Regions VIII and IX are between 37º40’S and 38º29’S and have an AOO of 74.35 km² (Echeverría et al. 2004). The northern coastal subpopulation (37º44’S and 37º51’S) is predominantly in Parque Nacional Nahuelbuta and the smaller southern subpopulation (38º26’S to 38º29’S) is located at Villa Las Araucarias.
Argentina: It is restricted to the Province of Neuquén where it occurs between Lake Aluminé and Lago Lolog; it occurs continuously between 38º40'to 39º20'S, but disjunct stands can be found as far north as 37º50'S (Rechene 2000). It has an actual AOO of 138.80 km2 (Anonymous 2004).
Native:Argentina (Neuquén); Chile (Biobío, La Araucania, Los Lagos)
|Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||392.51|
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes|
|Lower elevation limit (metres):||600|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||1800|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The main subpopulation is confined to the Andes, with most of the stands on the western slopes in Chile. In Argentina they are confined to a narrow strip about 200 km in length; the most important forests are 30 to 50 km wide and 150 kilometres long. The eastern-most stands occur as isolated groups (Burns 1993) which are probably remnants of an earlier, wider distribution. These fragmented stands show high levels of genetic variation (Bekessy et al. 2002, Marchelli et al. 2010) and these rear edge subpopulations are considered to be 'disproportionally important for the long-term conservation of genetic diversity' (Hampe and Petit 2005). The coastal cordillera of Chile has two small subpopulations, one mostly confined by Parque Nacional Nahuelbuta and the smaller southern, unprotected site of Villa Las Araucarias. This latter subpopulation is also significantly genetically differentiated (Bekessey et al. 2002).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||In the Andes, Araucaria occurs from the upper timber-line at ca. 1,500 to 1,800 m, down to 900 m with scattered individuals as low as 600 m (Veblen et al. 1995). The forests occur on soils derived from volcanic ash deposits (Casertano and Lombardi 1963) or on well-developed soils derived from metamorphic and sedimentary rocks (Peralta 1980). It can form relatively extensive pure stands often on steep volcanic slopes or in association with temperate rainforest species including Nothofagus antarctica, N. dombeyi, N. pumilio and Saxegothaea conspicua (Hechenleitner et al. 2005), however its most common forest type in the Andes is over a sub-canopy of Nothofagus pumilio (Veblen 1982). In the northern subpopulation in the Nahuelbuta Cordillera (southern central Chile) the species occurs at its highest coastal altitude of 1400 m and grows with N. obliqua and N. pumilio while the southern subpopulation occurs at an altitude of 600 m in a highly disturbed landscape dominated by mixed forests of Nothofagus spp. and exotic tree species (Hechenleitner et al. 2005). In Argentina it forms pure stands at between 900 and 1,800 m (Rechene 2000), but it is commonly associated with Nothofagus antarctica or N. pumilio (Funes et al. 2006), in Parque Nacional Lanin 49% of the forest is associated with Nothofagus pumilio and N. dombeyi. Towards the east of its range in Argentina where the rainfall is less (between 1,000 to 1,500 mm) it occurs with Austrocedrus chilensis, Lomatia hirsuta and shrubby species of the steppe vegetation (Burns 1993).
Its ecology is disturbance-driven, mainly by the effect of volcanoes, fire, landslides, snow avalanches and wind. In order to survive such disturbances it has developed effective adaptations, such as thick bark and epicormic buds (Burns 1993, Veblen 1982). A. araucana is predominantly dioecious and its seed is gravity-dispersed or assisted by Austral parakeets (Enicognathus ferrugineus) and other animals (Shepherd et al. 2008). Both seed and pollen are relatively heavy and may not disperse over large distances, although seed dispersal may be assisted by parakeets and other animals (Finckh and Paulsch 1995). Asexual reproduction by root suckering has been reported (Schilling and Donoso 1976), but it is unknown how important this process is to population maintenance and expansion (Veblen et al. 1995). It is a long-lived tree and specimens over 1300 years are not uncommon.
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Use and Trade:||A. araucana has light, soft, medium-weight wood which is used for lumber, flooring, paper pulp and ship-masts (Delmastro and Donoso 1980). Due to its listing on Appendix I of CITES there is no legal international trade in the timber; currently there is only local use in Argentina and Chile. The seeds are very rich in carbohydrates and proteins and were once an essential part of the diet of the indigenous people; the seeds are boiled or roasted, and their taste is similar to that of chestnuts. Today, the seeds are still eaten by local inhabitants, both the indigenous people and settlers. It is also highly prized as an ornamental tree in Europe (especially throughout Great Britain) and in parts of North America.|
|Major Threat(s):||About 60% of the Argentine Araucaria forests remain after deforestation (Veblen et al. 1999, Rechene 2000) and these forests are under continual threat and degradation: historically this has been caused by fire, logging and overgrazing. The frequency of fires has increased during the 20th century in order to establish agricultural and livestock activities (Marchelli et al. 2010) and this has resulted in severe fragmentation of Araucaria forests. Today the most obvious sign of forest degradation is the lack of natural regeneration that, under normal conditions, follows a ‘pulse’ pattern of highly productive seed years followed by less productive ones (Gallo et al. 2004). Many forests are subject to intensive human use in the form of seed collecting and animal grazing, Araucaria trees are poor at regenerating, and any regeneration that does occur is principally asexual with trees sprouting from roots (Gallo et al. 2004). There are severe threats to Araucaria araucana in the north of its range in Argentina, due to the establishment of plantations of exotic tree species within these native stands (A.C. Premeoli pers. comm.). In Chile the main threat is anthropogenic fires: large areas in several national parks have been destroyed within the last 25 years.|
Araucaria araucana is listed on Appendix I of CITES which strictly regulates the trade in its timber and seeds. The listing was approved in Chile in 1979 and transferred from Appendix II to Appendix I in Argentina in 2000 (Anonymous 2000). It is listed as a Natural Monument in Chile which gives it legal protection against logging. Approximately, 65.9% of the forests in the Coastal Range are within private properties, and the State (SNASPE) protects only 34.1% (Echeverría et al. 2004). The subpopulation in Villas Las Araucarias, which has unique genetic characteristics, is currently unprotected by the State (Bekessy et al. 2002, Echeverría et al. 2004 ). There are several Chilean private initiatives which are helping to protect Araucaria forests and these include Parques Para Chile and Reserva Nasampulli. In Argentina most stands have some form of protection, especially in Parque Nacional Lanín and Nahuel-Huapi. However, small and fragmented stands towards the eastern range in Argentina which are as genetically diverse as those on the Andes, occur outside protected areas and deserve particular attention (Marchelli et al. 2010). In Chile, the Villa Las Araucarias forest restoration project is restoring a severely degraded four hectare site (Echeverría et al. 2004). The natural regeneration and survival of Araucaria araucana needs to be urgently evaluated.
Aagesen, D.L. 1998. Indigenous rights and conservation of the monkey puzzle tree (Araucaria araucana Araucariaceae): a case study from Southern Chile). Economic Botany 52(2): 146-160.
Aagesen, D.L. 1998. On the northern fringe of the South American temperate forest: The history and conservation of the monkey-puzzle tree. Environmental History 3(1): 64– 85.
Anonymous. 2000. Proposal to Transfer from Appendix II to Appendix I of the Argentine population of monkey puzzle tree (Araucaria araucana), in accordance with the criteria specified in Resolution Conf. 9.2. Proposal 11.55 of the Eleventh Conference of the Parties. Gigiri (Kenya), 10-20 April 2000. 4 pp. Available at: http://www.cites.org/eng/cop/11/prop/55.pdf.
Anonymous. 2004. Chile: Protection for temperate forests of southern Chile. Rainforest Review Summer: 6-8.
Anonymous. 2004 (updated). Dirección de Gestión de Bosque Nativo, Provincia del Neuquén, Inventario Nacional de Bosques Nativos 1999/2000.
Bekessy, S.A., Allnutt, T.R., Premoli, A.C., Lara, A., Ennos, R.A., Burgman, M.A., Cortes, M. and Newton, A.C. 2002. Genetic variation in the vulnerable and endemic Monkey Puzzle tree, detected using RAPDs. Heredity 88: 243-249.
Bekessy, S.A., Sleep, D., Stott, A., Menuccini, M., Thomas P., Ennos, R.A., Burgman M.A., Gardner, M.F. and Newton, A.C. 2002. Adaptation of Monkey Puzzle to Arid Environments Reflected by Regional Differences in Stable Carbon Isotope Ratio and Allocation to Root Biomass. Forest Genetics 9(1): 63-70.
Bekessy, S., Lara, A., Gonzalez, M., Cortez, M., Gallo, L., Premoli, A. and Newton, A. 2004. Variación en Araucaria araucana. In: C. Donoso, A. Premoli, L. Gallo and R. Ipinza (eds), Variación Intraespecífica en las especies arbóreas de los bosques templados de Chile y Argentina, pp. 215-231. Editorial Universitaria.
Benoit, C. and Ivan, L. (eds) 1989. Libro Rojo de la Flora Terrestre de Chile. Impresora Creces Ltd, Santiago.
Burns, B.R. 1993. Fire induced dynamics of Araucaria araucana - Nothofagus antarctica forest in the southern Andes. Journal of Biogeography 20: 669-685.
Casertano, L and Lombardi, O.L. 1963. General characteristics of active andean volcanoes and a summary of their activities during recent centuries. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 53(6): 1415-1433.
CONAF, CONAMA, BIRF, Universidad Austral de Chile, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Universidad Católica de Temuco. 1999. Catastro y evaluatión de los Recursos Vegetacionales Nativos de Chile. Informe Nacional con Variables Ambientales.. Santiago, Chile.
Delmastro, R and Donoso, C. 1980. Review of distribution, variation and utilization of gene resources of Araucaria araucana (Mol.) Koch in Chile. Proc. IUFRO Symposio em melboramiento genetico e productividade de especias florestais de rapido crescimento..
Dodd, Z.A. and Dodd, R.S. 1998. Genetic diversity among coastal and Andean natural populations of Araucaria araucana (Molina) Koch. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 26(4): 441-451.
Echeverría, C., Zamorano, C. and Cortés, M. 2004. Conservation and restoration of Monkey Puzzle (Araucaria araucana) forests in Chile (Final Report).
Farjon, A. and Page, C.N. (compilers) 1999. Conifers. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Conifer Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Finckh, M. and Paulsch, A. 1995. The ecological strategy of Araucaria araucana. Flora 190: 365-382.
Funes, M.C., Sanguinetti, J., Laclau, P., Maresca, L., García, L., Mazzieri, F., Chazarreta, L., Bocos, D., Diana Lavalle, F., Espósito, P., González, A. and Gallardo, A. 2006. Diagnóstico del estado de conservación de la biodiversidad en el Parque Nacional Lanín: su viabilidad de protección en el largo plazo. Informefinal. Parque Nacional Lanín, San Martín de los Andes, Neuquén.
Gallo, L., Izquierdo, F., Sanguinetti, L.J., Pinna, A., Siffredi, G., Ayesa, J., Lopez, C., Pelliza, A., Strizler, N., Gonzales Peñalba, M., Maresca, L. and Chauchard, L. 2004. Araucaria araucana forest genetic resources in Argentina. In: B. Vinceti, W. Amaral and B. Meilleur (eds), Challenges in Managing Forest Genetic Resource for Livelihoods: examples from Argentina and Brazil, pp. 105-131. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome.
González, M.E., Veblen, T.T. and Sibold, S. 2005. Fire history of Araucaria -Nothofagus forests in Villarrica National Park, Chile. Journal of Biogeography 32: 1-15.
Hampe, A. and Petit, R.J. 2005. Conserving biodiversity under climate change: the rear edge matters. Ecology Letters 8: 461-467.
Hechenleitner, P., Gardner, M., Thomas, P., Echeverría, C., Escobar, B., Brownless, P. and Martínez, C. 2005. Plantas amenazadas del Centro-Sur de Chile. Distribución, Conservación y Propagación. Universidad Austral de Chile y Real Jardín Botánico de Edimburgo, Santiago.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).
Marchelli, P., Baier, C., Mengel, C., Ziegenhagen, B. and Gallo, L.A. 2010. Biogeographic history of the threatened species Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch and implications for conservation: a case study with organelle DNA markers. Genetic conservation 11(3): 951-963.
Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. (compilers). 1998. The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.
Peralta, M. 1980. Geomorfología, clima y suelos del tipo forestal Araucaria en Lonquimay. Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de Chile, Santiago.
Rafii, Z.A. and Dodd, R.S. 1998. Genetic diversity among coastal and Andean natural populations of Araucaria araucana (Molina), K. Koch. Biochemical Systematic Ecology 26: 441-451.
Rechene, C. 2000. Los bosques de Araucaria araucana en Argentina. Estudios silvícolas. CIEFAP, Esquel, Chubut, Argentina.
Schilling, R. and Donoso, C. 1976. Reproduccion vegetativa natural de Araucaria araucana (Mol.) Koch. Investigaciones Agricultura (Chile) 2: 121-122.
Shepherd, J.D., Ditgen, R.S. and Sanguinetti, J. 2008. Araucaria araucana and the Austral parakeet: pre-dispersal seed predation on a masting species. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 81(3): 395-401.
Veblen, T.T. 1982. Regeneration patterns in Araucaria araucana forests in Chile. Journal of Biogeography 9: 11-28.
Veblen, T.T., Burns, B.R., Kitzberger, T., Lara, A. and Villalba, A. 1995. The Ecology of the Conifers of Southern South America. In: N.J. Enright and R.S. Hill (eds), Ecology of the Southern Conifers, pp. 129-135. Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria.
Veblen, T.T., Kitzberger, T., Villalba, R. and Donnegan, J. 1999. Fire History in northern Patagonia: The roles of humans and climatic variation. Ecological Monographs 69(1): 47-67.
Walter, K.S. and Gillett, H.J. (eds). 1998. 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. IUCN - The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
|Citation:||Premoli, A., Quiroga, P. & Gardner, M. 2013. Araucaria araucana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T31355A2805113. . Downloaded on 05 May 2016.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|