Map_thumbnail_large_font

Warburgia salutaris 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Magnoliales Canellaceae

Scientific Name: Warburgia salutaris (G.Bertol.) Chiov.
Common Name(s):
English Pepper Bark Tree, Muranga
Synonym(s):
Chibaca salutaris G.Bertol.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A1acd ver 2.3
Year Published: 1998
Date Assessed: 1998-01-01
Annotations:
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Hilton-Taylor, C., Scott-Shaw, R., Burrows, J. & Hahn, N.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The pepperbark tree has a scattered distribution in southern Africa, occurring in savanna woodland and coastal forest in northern KwaZulu-Natal, Afromontane forest patches along the Drakensberg Escarpment in Mpumalanga and on the Soutpansberg and Blouberg ranges in the Northern Province. Elsewhere it is recorded from Afromontane forests in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe and from Afromontane and lowland forest patches in Swaziland and Mozambique. There are still large, relatively untouched subpopulations in the Northern Province. The precise northern distribution of the species and its relationship with closely related species in East Africa requires further investigation.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Mozambique; South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga); Swaziland; Zimbabwe
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Occurs in savanna woodland, coastal forest and Afromontane forest. In KwaZulu-Natal, there is very little seed set and no seedlings have been reported; all plants seen have reproduced vegetatively. The reasons for this are unknown.
Systems:Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There has been some habitat loss due to agricultural activities, expansion of human habitation and logging for firewood and timber. The major direct threat to the species is the exploitation of its bark, stems and roots for use in traditional medicinal practices as a treatment of head and chest ailments and also to cure people who are bewitched. This has led to the near extinction of the species in KwaZulu-Natal, parts of Mpumalanga, Swaziland and Zimbabwe.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Plants have been reintroduced into two protected areas in KwaZulu-Natal. Although there are subpopulations within protected areas, it is difficult to prevent exploitation. A number of projects are under way to provide a cultivated form.

Classifications [top]


In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

Bibliography [top]

Bandeira, S. 1995. Data collection forms for tree species of Mozambique.

Bandeira, S.O., Marconi, L. and Barbosa, F. 1996. Preliminary study of threatened plants of Mozambique. In: L.J.G. van der Maesen, X.M. van der Burght and J.M. van Medenbach de Rooy (eds) The Biodiversity of African Plants, pp. 306-309. Proceedings XIVth Aetfat Congress, 22-27 August 1994, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Kluwer Academic Publications, Dordrecht.

Hilton-Taylor, C. (compiler) 1998. Assessment of Southern African Trees for WCMC.

Hilton-Taylor, C. (ed.). 1996. Red Data List of Southern African Plants. Strelitzia 4. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. (compilers). 1998. The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.

Timberlake, J.R. 1995. Annotations to WCMC printout entitled, Conservation status listing for Zimbabwe.

Timberlake, J.R. 1996. Annotations to the conservation listing of trees of Zimbabwe.

Wild, H. and Müller, T. 1979. Rhodesia. Part of appendix to: Possibilities and needs for conservation of plant species and vegetation in Africa. In: I. Hedberg, (ed.) Systematic Botany, Plant Utilization and Biosphere Conservation, pp.99-100. Almqvist and Wiksell International, Stockholm.


Citation: Hilton-Taylor, C., Scott-Shaw, R., Burrows, J. & Hahn, N. 1998. Warburgia salutaris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1998: e.T30364A9541142. . Downloaded on 12 December 2017.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided