|Scientific Name:||Crocidura suaveolens|
|Species Authority:||(Pallas, 1811)|
Crocidura gueldenstaedtii (Pallas, 1811)
|Taxonomic Notes:||Populations from eastern Asia (SE Siberia, E China, Korea, Taiwan) are now considered to be a separate species, C. shantungensis, whilst C. gueldenstaedtii is considered conspecific with C. suaveolens.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Hutterer, R., Amori, G., Kryštufek, B., Yigit, N., Mitsain, G. & Palomo, L.J.|
|Reviewer/s:||Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority) & Temple, H. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
A widespread and common species throughout its range with no major threats hence is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||The Lesser White-toothed Shrew has a wide global distribution. It occurs in the Palaearctic, extending from the Atlantic coast of Spain and probably Portugal (where its occurrence needs further confirmation) extending eastwards through Europe and Asia to Siberia. The southernmost edge of its distribution reaches Sinai (Egypt), Asia Minor, Israel, Saudia Arabia, Iran and China.|
Native:Albania; Algeria; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Lebanon; Liechtenstein; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Morocco; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Saudi Arabia; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is uncommon in the western part of its range, occurring at much lower densities than its congener C. russula (Libois et al. 1999). Further east it is more common. Described as abundant and ubiquitous in at least parts of its global range (Harrison and Bates 1991). In the steppe forest zone in Ukraine it is the most abundant shrew species, both in natural and agricultural habitats (I. Zagorodnyuk pers. comm. 2006).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
At higher latitudes and altitudes in Europe it is often associated with human habitation, tending to be found in parks, gardens, and even houses. It is very common in straw ricks. In western and southern Europe and it inhabits a wide range of habitats including vineyards, olive groves, terraced farmland on hillsides, dry Mediterranean shrubland, sand dunes, rocky areas in the mountains, and damp densely-vegetated patches near to water. It tends to avoid dense forests (Vlasák and Niethammer 1990, Libois et al. 1999). Small, soft-bodied insects form a major part of its diet (Vlasák and Niethammer 1990).
In southwest Asia it has been collected from habitats with long dry grasses; thick vegetation along streams, river edges and vegetation channels; around houses and in forested areas (Bates and Harrison 1989, Tez 2000). Its main requirement is enough vegetation and moisture to support its insect prey, and in arid areas it tends to be more common near springs and oases; however, it is more tolerant of dry conditions than many of its congeners (Qumsiyeh 1996).
The gestation period is 28 days and life expectancy one year; a female may have 10-12 litters, each with one to seven young, although usually four (Qumsiyeh 1996).
|Major Threat(s):||It may be out-competed in some areas by C. russula. Pesticides and herbicides may have a negative impact on the species in agricultural habitats (Libois et al. 1999), but at present this does not seem to be a major threat.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is listed on Appendix III of the Bern Convention. Subspecies C. s. caneae, endemic to Crete, is on Appendix II of the Bern Convention (as C. ariadne). It occurs in protected areas within its range. No specific conservation actions are recommended.|
Bates, P. J. and Harrison, J. 1989. New records of small mammals from Jordan. Bonner Zoologische Beitrage 40: 223-226.
Corbet, G. B. 1978. The Mammals of the Palaearctic Region: a Taxonomic Review. British Museum (Natural History) and Cornell University Press, London, UK and Ithaca, NY, USA.
Dubey, S., Cosson, J.-F., Magnanou, E., Vohralik, P., Benda, P., Frynta, D., Hutterer, R., Vogel, V. and Vogel, P. 2007. Mediterranean populations of the lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suavolens group): an unexpected puzzle of Pleistocene survivors and prehistoric introductions. Molecular Ecology 16: 3438-3452.
Harrison, D. L. and Bates, P. J. J. 1991. The Mammals of Arabia. Harrison Zoological Museum, Sevenoaks, UK.
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
Libois, R., Ramalhinho, M. G. and Fons, R. 1999. Crocidura suaveolens. In: A. J. Mitchell-Jones, G. Amori, W. Bogdanowicz, B. Kryštufek, P. J. H. Reijnders, F. Spitzenberger, M. Stubbe, J. B. M. Thissen, V. Vohralík and J. Zima (eds), The Atlas of European Mammals, pp. 1-484. Academic Press, London, UK.
Nowak, R. M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA and London, UK.
Pieper, H. 1990. Crocidura zimmermanni Wettstein, 1953 - Kretaspitzmaus. In: J. Niethammer and F. Krapp (eds), Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas. Band 3/I, Insectivora, Primates., Aula Verlag, Wiesbaden.
Qumsiyeh, M. B. 1996. Mammals of the Holy Land. Texas Tech University Press, Lubbock.
Tez, C. 2000. Taxonomy and Distribution of the White-Toothed Shrews (Crocidura).
Vlasák, P. and Niethammer, P. 1990. Crocidura suaveolens (Pallas, 1811) - Gartenspitzmaus. In: J. Niethammer and F. Krapp (eds), Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas. Band 3/I, Insectivora, Primates, Aula Verlag, Wiesbaden.
|Citation:||Hutterer, R., Amori, G., Kryštufek, B., Yigit, N., Mitsain, G. & Palomo, L.J. 2008. Crocidura suaveolens. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 07 December 2013.|
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