|Scientific Name:||Balaena mysticetus (Svalbard-Barents Sea (Spitsbergen) subpopulation)|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
Subpopulation of Balaena mysticetus Linnaeus, 1758. See also the global assessment for this species and subpopulation assessment for the Okhotsk Sea stock.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered D ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Reilly, S.B., Bannister, J.L., Best, P.B., Brown, M., Brownell Jr., R.L., Butterworth, D.S., Clapham, P.J., Cooke, J., Donovan, G., Urbán, J. & Zerbini, A.N.|
|Reviewer(s):||Taylor, B.L. & Notarbartolo di Sciara, G.|
There is no quantitative estimate of current population size, but the largest sighting in recent decades was of “about 66 animals” in 1983. Given the tendency of Bowhead Whales to aggregate for concentrated food sources, this sighting could have involved much of the total population. The lack of any calf sightings in recent decades, together with the general paucity of sightings overall (seven sightings totalling 17–20 individuals during a systematic survey in 2006), indicates that CR remains appropriate.
|Range Description:||This subpopulation ranges from the east coast of Greenland (Denmark) across the Greenland Sea, the Barents Sea, and the Kara Sea to Severnaya Zemlya (Russian Federation), and south at least occasionally to northern Iceland and the coast of Finnmark (Norway) and Jan Mayen (Norway) (Rice 1998).
The range map shows where the species may occur based on oceanography. The species has not been recorded for all the states within the hypothetical range as shown on the map. States for which confirmed records of the species exist are included in the list of native range states. States within the hypothetical range but for which no confirmed records exist are included in the Presence Uncertain list.
Native:Greenland; Svalbard and Jan Mayen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – northeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Pre-whaling subpopulation size
This subpopulation was originally by far the most abundant of the Bowhead Whale subpopulations, but was heavily depleted by pre-modern commercial whaling from 1611 to the last recorded capture in 1911 (Ross 1993). The only record of catches by modern whaling refers to four taken by modern whaling near Svalbard in 1932 (Ruud 1937). Based on the catch record, a minimum initial subpopulation size was estimated by Woodby and Botkin (1993) at 24,000 whales. A modelling exercise (Allen and Keay 2006) resulted in an estimate of 52,000 but this may be too high given it assumed a net reproductive rate considerably lower than that currently observed in the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas subpopulation (see the global assessment for this species).
Current subpopulation size
There is no quantitative estimate of current subpopulation size, but the available evidence suggests that it is small. Jonsgård (1982) reported no live sightings on surveys between Greenland and Svalbard and around Svalbard in 1980, but one dead probable Bowhead. Based on post-war sightings of only seven individuals in Norwegian and adjacent waters up to 1990, Christensen et al. (1992) suggested that the subpopulation numbered “in the tens”. However, the Norwegian record may have given a somewhat exaggerated impression of rarity, due to lack of coverage within the pack ice.
Moore and Reeves (1993) list 37 sightings between 1940 and 1990, mainly near Svalbard and Franz Josef Land (Russian Federation). The records include two sightings (Belikov et al. 1989) of apparently quite large winter aggregations near Franz Josef Land in 1981 (“several tens of individuals”) and 1983 (“about 66 animals”). Gilg and Born (2005) list 23 definite and probable sightings off East Greenland during 1940–2004, including a probable sighting of ten individuals in 2003. Seven sightings totalling about 20 individuals were reported in the Greenland Sea in April 2006 (Wiig et al. 2007). While the number of sightings records has increased over time this may reflect increased effort rather than increasing abundance. Among the recently reported observations, no calves or small individuals have been reported. The proportion of the subpopulation that comprises mature animals is unknown. A value of 44% has been estimated for the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas stock.
Anecdotal evidence from historical whaling accounts suggests the possibility of whales from a stock to the east, possibly the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas stock, entering into these waters at times (Shelden et al. 1995), which would complicate the interpretation of the sightings data with respect to the size of the remnant Svalbard stock. Whether the current subpopulation is a remnant of the original Svalbard stock, a recolonization, or a mixture of both, is currently unclear, but ongoing analyses of DNA from old bones might throw light on this question (Borge et al. 2005).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The seasonal distribution is strongly influenced by pack ice (Moore and Reeves 1993). During the winter Bowhead Whales occur in areas near the ice edge, in polynyas, and in areas of unconsolidated pack ice. During the spring these whales use leads and cracks in the ice to penetrate areas that were inaccessible during the winter due to heavy ice coverage. During the summer and autumn they concentrate in areas where zooplankton production is high or where large-scale biophysical processes create local concentrations of calanoid copepods (Finley 1990, Finley et al. 1998).
Small to medium-sized crustaceans, especially krill and copepods, form the bulk of the Bowhead's diet (Lowry et al. 2004). They also feed on mysids and gammarid amphipods, and the diet includes at least 60 species. Bowheads skim feed at the surface and feed in the water column. It has recently been suggested that they also feed near the bottom, but probably do not directly ingest sediments as Gray Whales routinely do.
|Use and Trade:||This subpopulation is not hunted.|
|Major Threat(s):||This subpopulation is not hunted. Incidental mortality or serious injury from entanglement in fishing gear and ship strikes has not been reported. There are no known specific threats to this subpopulation. For a discussion of general threats see the global assessment for this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||The International Whaling Commission has protected Bowhead Whales from commercial whaling since its inception in 1946 and there is no aboriginal subsistence whaling exemption for Spitsbergen Bowhead Whales. No specific mechanisms are currently in place to protect Bowhead habitat or to prevent incidental mortality in fishing gear. More general measures taken for environmental protection of the waters off northeast Greenland, Svalbard and Franz Joseph Land may have some beneficial effects on the habitat of Bowheads. The species is listed in CITES Appendix I and CMS Appendix I.|
Allen, R.C. and Keay, I. 2006. Bowhead whales in the eastern Arctic, 1611-1911: population reconstruction with historical whaling records. Environment and History 12(1): 89-113.
Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. pp. 378. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Belikov, S. E., Gorbunov, Yu. A. and Shil'nikov, V. I. 1989. Distribution of pinnipedia and cetacea in Soviet arctic seas and the Bering Sea in winter. Soviet Journal of Marine Biology 15(4): 251-257.
Borge, T., Bachmann, L. and Wiig, Ø. 2005. Genetic variation in holocene bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in the Northeast Atlantic. Paper SC/57/BRG8 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee, June 2005.
Bratton, G.R., Spainhour, C.B., Flory, W., Reed, M. and Jayko, K. 1993. Presence and potential effects of contaminants. In: J.J. Burns, J.J. Montague and C.J. Cowles (eds) The Bowhead Whale, pp.701-744. Society for Marine Mammalogy, Special Publication No.2, Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas.
Christensen, I., Haug, T. and Øien, N. 1992. Seasonal distribution, exploitation and present abundance of stocks of large baleen whales (Mysticeti) and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in Norwegian and adjacent waters. ICES Journal of Marine Science 49:341-55.
Finley, K.J. 1990. Isabella Bay, Baffin Island: an important historical and present-day concentration area for the endangered bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) of the eastern Canadian Arctic. Arctic 43:137-152.
Finley, K.J., Marko, J., Fissel, D.B. and Goodyear, J.D. 1998. The Calanus connection: feeding ecology and habitat of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) within the Baffin marine ecosystem, in relation to climatic oscillations. Paper presented to Symposium on Arctic Seas: Currents of Change, Mystic, Connecticut.
Gilg, O. and Born, E.W. 2005. Recent sightings of the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) in Northeast Greenland and the Greenland Sea. Polar Biology 28: 796-801.
Hilton-Taylor, C. 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 October 2012).
Jonsgård, Å. 1982. Bowhead (Balaena mysticetus) surveys in Arctic Northeast Atlantic waters in 1980. Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:355-356
Lowry, L.F., Sheffield, G. and George, J.C. 2004. Bowhead whale feeding in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, based on stomach content analyses. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 6(3): 215-223.
Moore, S.E. and Reeves, R.R. 1993. Distribution and movement. In: J.J. Burns, J.J. Montague and C.J. Cowles (eds) The Bowhead Whale, pp. 313-386. Society for Marine Mammalogy, Special Publication No.2, Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas.
Reeves, R.R., Smith, B.D., Crespo, E.A. and di Sciara, G.N. (compilers) 2003. Dolphins, Whales and Porpoises: 2002-2010 Conservation Action Plan for the World's Cetaceans. IUCN/SSC Cetacean Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Rice, D.W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World. Systematics and Distribution. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.
Ross, W.G. 1993. Commercial whaling in the North Atlantic sector. In: J.J. Burns, J.J. Montague and C.J. Cowles (eds) The Bowhead Whale, pp. 511-561. Society for Marine Mammalogy, Special Publication No.2, Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas.
Ruud, J. T. 1937. Grønlandshvalen. Norsk Hvalfangsttid 26(7): 254-68;(8)269-80.
Shelden, K.E.W. and Rugh, D.J. 1995. The Bowhead Whale, Balena mysticetus: its historic and current status. Marine Fisheries Review 57(3-4): 1-20.
Tynan, C.T. and DeMaster, D.P. 1997. Observations and predictions of arctic climatic change: potential effects on marine mammals. Arctic 50: 308-322.
Wiig, Ø., Bachmann, L., Janik, V.M., Kovacs, K.M. and Lydersen, C. 2007. Spitsbergen bowhead whales revisited. Marine Mammal Science 23(3): 688-693.
Woodby, D.A. and Botkin, D. 1993. Stock sizes prior to commercial whaling. In: J.J. Burns, J.J. Montague and C.J. Cowles (eds) The Bowhead Whale, pp.387-407. Society for Marine Mammalogy, Special Publication No.2, Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas.
Zeh, J.E., Clark, C.W., George, J.C., Withrow, D., Carroll, G.M. and Koski, W.R. 1993. Current population size and dynamics. In: J.J. Burns, J.J. Montague and C.J. Cowles (eds) The Bowhead Whale, pp.409-489. Society for Marine Mammalogy, Special Publication No.2, Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas.
|Citation:||Reilly, S.B., Bannister, J.L., Best, P.B., Brown, M., Brownell Jr., R.L., Butterworth, D.S., Clapham, P.J., Cooke, J., Donovan, G., Urbán, J. & Zerbini, A.N. 2012. Balaena mysticetus (Svalbard-Barents Sea (Spitsbergen) subpopulation). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 May 2015.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|