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Avahi laniger 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Indriidae

Scientific Name: Avahi laniger
Species Authority: (Gmelin, 1788)
Common Name(s):
English Eastern Woolly Lemur, Woolly Indris, Gmelin's Woolly Lemur, Eastern Avahi
French Avahi Laineux, Maki À Bourre
Spanish Indri Lanudo
Taxonomic Notes: Generic synonym = Lichanotus.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A3cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-07-11
Assessor(s): Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.
Reviewer(s): Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.
Justification:

A predicted population reduction of ≥30% in the future over a three generation time period of 30 years is based on a continuing and projected decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, mainly caused by slash-and-burn agriculture and logging, in addition to ongoing and projected exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Vulnerable.

Previously published Red List assessments:
  • 2008 – Least Concern (LC)
  • 2000 – Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
  • 1996 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • 1994 – Vulnerable (V)
  • 1990 – Vulnerable (V)
  • 1990 – Vulnerable (V)
  • 1988 – Insufficiently Known (K)
  • 1986 – Insufficiently Known (K)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is found in north east Madagascar. Prior to the recent taxonomic splitting of this species, it was thought to range almost the entire length of Madagascar’s eastern rainforests, from the Tolagnaro (= Fort-Dauphin) region in the extreme south to perhaps as far as the Ankarana Massif in the extreme north. With the description of a number of new species within this large area, it is now thought to range from the Bemarivo River in the north to the Nesivolo / Mangoro in the south (E.E. Louis Jr. pers. obs.).



Countries occurrence:
Native:
Madagascar
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:50685-92917
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Population numbers are in decline due to habitat loss and hunting. In Ambatovy, population density is estimated to be 50-60 individuals/km². This species appears to survive relatively well in small areas of 2-3 ha. In Ambodiriana Manopana, population density is estimated to be 30-50 individuals/km². At the Analamazaotra Special Reserve, estimates of densities reach 72-100 individuals/km² (Ganzhorn 1988).



Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species occurs in tropical moist lowland and montane forests, as well as secondary forest formations. Population densities appear higher in secondary growth and disturbed habitats. During the day, they typically sleep in clumps of dense foliage, sometimes fairly close to the ground, where group members huddle together (Mittermeier et al. 2008 and references therein). The diet consists of mainly immature leaves and buds, supplemented with fruits, flowers, and bark. Nocturnal and arboreal. Groups of up to five have been reported, and home ranges of 1–2 ha are aggressively defended. Small group size indicates monogamous groupings, but longitudinal and genetic data are needed to better understand this social behavior. Single births take place in August and September (Mittermeier et al. 2008 and references therein).



Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):10

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is hunted for food.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Localized declines are no doubt taking place from habitat destruction due to logging and slash-and-burn agriculture. The species is sometimes captured opportunistically at its daytime sleeping sites or in traps baited with fruit, and in some places is actively pursued by hunters with slingshots (Mananara-Nord) or spears (Makira). Indeed, recent data indicates that there has been a considerable upsurge in the hunting of this species. An estimated 2,500-3,000 individuals are hunted per year in Makira. Hunting of this species is occasionally fady (especially if a mother has a single young) (C. Golden pers. comm.).  

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It is reported to occur in four national parks (Mananara-Nord, Mantadia, Marojejy, and Zahamena), two strict nature reserves (Betampona and Zahamena) and five special reserves (Ambatovaky, Ambohitantely, Analamazaotra, Anjanaharibe-Sud, and Mangerivola), along with the soon-to-be protected forests of Makira. The taxonomic status of the Avahi species in Ankarana and also in the Kalambatritra Special Reserve requires further investigation.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.3. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.4. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Ganzhorn, J. U. 1988. Food partitioning among Malagasy primates. Oecologia 75: 436–450.

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

Mittermeier, R., Louis, E., Hawkins, F., Langrand, O., Ganzhorn, J., Konstant, W., Rasoloarison, R., Rajaobelina, S. and Richardson, M. 2008. Lemurs of Madagascar, 3rd edition. Conservation International.


Citation: Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Avahi laniger. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T2434A16114949. . Downloaded on 23 July 2016.
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