|Scientific Name:||Vampyrum spectrum|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Aguirre, L., Mantilla, H., Miller, B. & Dávalos, L.|
|Reviewer(s):||Medellín, R. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
The species is listed as Near Threatened due to its dependence on primary forest habitat and is rare and dispersed anywhere it is found, making it extremely susceptible to habitat fragmentation and population decline. It is very difficult to estimate rates of decline with such a widespread and rare species - thus further work is needed to measures rates of decline due to habitat loss and human disturbance. Almost qualifies as threatened under criterion A.
|Range Description:||This species occurs throughout Veracruz (Mexico) to Ecuador and Peru, Bolivia, north and southwest Brazil, and Guianas; It is also found on Trinidad (Simmons, 2005).|
Native:Belize; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Peru; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is rare and local (Reid, 1997). Occurs in low densities throughout its range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Top predator with large home range, occurs in small and dispersed populations. This bat is usually found in lowland, evergreen forest, and occasionally in cloud or deciduous forest or swampy areas. It is carnivorous, eating birds and small mammals around 20 to 150 grams. Remains of birds recorded in its roosts include 18 species, some of then include motmots, doves, trogons, cuckoos, wrens, and orioles. Also, a bat (Rhogeessa sp.) was found in feces of an individual in Guatemala. This bat is often attracted to distress calls of smaller bats. It roosts in groups of 1 to 5 in hollow trees (including Ceiba pentandra, Mora excelsa, and Spondias mombin). Groups usually consist of an adult pair and their offspring, which hang tightly clumped together. Activity begins at dusk; after foraging for an hour or more, the group returns to the day roost for part of the night. Reproductive dates are limited; a single young appears to be born at the onset of the rainy season and is tended by both parents (McCarthy, 1987; Reid, 1997; Vehrencamp et al., 1977).|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats throughout its range. Local threats include habitat fragmentation and destruction. This species is forest dependant (although sometimes captured in pastures and fruit groves near forest edge), and likely required primary forest habitat.|
|Conservation Actions:||Conservation of intact forest. In Mexico it is listed as endandered under NOM - 059 - SEMARNAT - 2001 (Arroyo-Cabrales pers. comm.). Found in protected areas. This species is considered Endangered in Bolivia (Aquirre 1999, Flores and Bedregado 2003).|
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
McCarthy, T. J. 1987. Distributional records of bats of the caribbean lowlands of Belize and adjacent Guatemala and Mexico. Fieldana, Zoology 39: 137-162.
Reid, F. 1997. A field guide to the mammals of Central America and southeast Mexico. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
Simmons, N. B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 312-529. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Vehrencamp, S. L., Stiles, F. V. and Bradbury, J. W. 1977. Observations on the foraging behavior and avian prey of the neotropical carnivorous bat, Vampyrum spectrum. Journal of Mammalogy 58: 469-478.
|Citation:||Aguirre, L., Mantilla, H., Miller, B. & Dávalos, L. 2008. Vampyrum spectrum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 January 2015.|
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