|Scientific Name:||Vampyrodes caraccioli|
|Species Authority:||(Thomas, 1889)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Includes major; see Jones and Carter (1976), but also see Starrett and Casebeer (1968).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Miller, B., Reid, F., Arroyo-Cabrales, J., Cuarón, A.D. & de Grammont, P.C.|
|Reviewer/s:||Medellín, R. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Least Concern because it is widely dispersed, tolerant to a range of habitats and is unlikely to be declining at a rate which would include the species in a threat category.
|Range Description:||This species occurs from southern Veracruz, Mexico, south through the Isthmus and over most of northern South America to Amazonian Peru, northwestern Brazil (Eisenberg, 1989; Reid, 1997), and northern Bolivia (Wiilis et al., 1990); also Trinidad and Tobago. It occurs mainly below 1,000 m elevation.|
Native:Belize; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico (Oaxaca); Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Venezuela
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Uncommon to common, widespread (Emmons and Feer, 1997). Can be locally common.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is strongly associated with multistratal tropical evergreen forest; also can be found in plantations and gardens. These bats may be found roosting in small groups of 1 to 4 adults with their young under foliage of subcanopy trees (7 to 12 m above ground), shrub branches, or under palm leaves; the leaves are not modified to form a tent, but few roosts have been reported (Emmons and Feer, 1997). Group composition is stable, but roost sites change almost daily. The group consists of small harems of 2 to 3 females and one male, sometimes with associated young. Bachelor males roost alone (Morrison, 1980). Although sometimes caught in ground-level mist nets, this species usually flies 3 m or more above ground. Activity is greatest 30 minutes after sunset, for 1 to 2 hours, and again shortly after midnight (Bonaccorso, 1978). Figs are the principal food source, other fruits and pollen or nectar may also be taken. Females may breed twice annually, in January and July in Panama (Willis et al., 1990). Feeds on fruit, especially figs (Goodwin and Greenhall, 1961).|
|Major Threat(s):||Deforestation, habitat loss although this is not a major threat.|
|Conservation Actions:||Retention of forest habitats. The species occurs in a number of protected areas througout its range.|
Bonaccorso, F. J. 1978. Foraging and reproductive ecology in a Panamanian bat community. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences 24: 359-408.
Eisenberg, J. F. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics. The Northern Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA and London, UK.
Emmons, L. H. and Feer, F. 1997. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A Field Guide, Second edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.
Goodwin, G. G. and Greenhal, A. M. 1961. A review of the bats of Trinidad and Tobago. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 122(3): 187-302.
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
Jones Jr., J. K. and Carter, D. C. 1976. Annotated checklist, with keys to subfamilies and genera. In: R. J. Baker, J. K. Jones, Jr. and D. C. Carter (eds), Biology of bats of the New World family Phyllostomatidae, pp. 7-38. Special Publication. Museum Texas Tech University.
Reid, F. 1997. A field guide to the mammals of Central America and southeast Mexico. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
Starrett, A. and Casebeer, R. S. 1968. Records of bats from Costa Rica. Los Angeles County Museum Contributions in Science 148: 1-21.
Willis, K. B., Willig, M. R. and Jones., J. K. 1990. Vampyrodes caraccioli. Mammalian Species 359: 1-4.
|Citation:||Miller, B., Reid, F., Arroyo-Cabrales, J., Cuarón, A.D. & de Grammont, P.C. 2008. Vampyrodes caraccioli. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 May 2013.|
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