|Scientific Name:||Struthio molybdophanes Reichenow, 1883|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Struthio camelus and S. molybdophanes (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as S. camelus following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).|
|Identification information:||Male 210-275 cm, 100-156 kg, female 175-190 cm, 90-110 kg. Huge flightless bird with massive bare legs and long bare neck and head. Loose plumage is solidly black in the male apart from the bright white tail and small wings. Females are dark brown. Similar spp. to S. camelus but bare areas are blue-grey, eyes are pale grey-brown and the plumage is blacker in the male. The female is more similar to S. camelus, but always has blue-grey eyes.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., Martin, R, Symes, A., Taylor, J., Westrip, J.|
This newly-split species is suspected to be undergoing a rapid decline over three generations (50 years) given the apparent severity of a variety of threats including hunting for feathers and food, egg collection and habitat loss and degradation. It has therefore been listed as Vulnerable, but better information on population trends and the scope and severity of threats is highly desirable.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Struthio molybdophanes is found in north-east Africa, with its range incorporating Ethiopia, Somalia, Djibouti and Kenya (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Numbers have noticeably decreased since the late 1980s, with total disappearance from some areas, although flocks of 40 are still seen in the southern Danakil (Ash and Atkins 2009).|
Native:Djibouti; Ethiopia; Kenya; Somalia
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population size has not been quantified owing to recent taxonomic splits.|
Trend Justification: No trend data are available, but the given the apparently severity of threats including hunting for feathers and food, egg collection and habitat loss and degradation, the species is precautionarily suspected to be undergoing a rapid decline over three generations (50 years).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species is often encountered alone or in pairs in a variety of habitats including semi-arid and arid grassland, dense thornbush and woodland (Davies 2002, Ash and Atkins 2009).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||16.8|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Ash and Atkins (2009) document threats to and apparent declines in Ethiopia and Eritrea. The eggs are used as ornaments, water containers and symbols or protective devices on churches and graves, birds are shot for target practice, food, leather and feathers, and chased to exhaustion or death by drivers. Habitat loss and degradation undoubtedly represents a further threat.|
Conservation and research actions in place
Conservation and research actions proposed
Obtain population and trend estimates, and ascertain severity of threats. Combat hunting and egg collecting via awareness-raising campaigns.
Ash, J.; Atkins, J. 2009. Birds of Ethiopia and Eritrea: an atlas of distribution. Christopher Helm, London.
Davies, S. 2002. Ratites and Tinamous. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Elliot, A. and Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Struthio molybdophanes. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22732795A95049558.Downloaded on 23 February 2018.|