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Anthornis melanocephala 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_on

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Meliphagidae

Scientific Name: Anthornis melanocephala Gray 1843
Common Name(s):
English Chatham Bellbird, Chatham Island Bellbird
Taxonomic Source(s): Brooks, T. 2000. Extinct species. In: BirdLife International (ed.), Threatened Birds of the World, pp. 701-708. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona and Cambridge, U.K.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Extinct ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Brooks, T., Khwaja, N., Mahood, S., Martin, R
Justification:
This species was found in the Chatham Islands, New Zealand, but it is now Extinct, probably mainly as a result of habitat loss. It was last recorded in 1906, and a search for it in 1938 was unsuccessful.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Anthornis melanocephala was endemic to Chatham, Mangere and Little Mangere Islands, New Zealand (Greenway 1967). The last records were in 1906 from Little Mangere (Fleming 1939). An expedition in 1938 hoping to rediscover the species found no trace of it (Tennyson and Martinson 2006).

Countries occurrence:
Regionally extinct:
New Zealand
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:None remain.
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It inhabited the islands' dense forest.

Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):5.8
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The reasons for its decline are obscure, but were probably a combination of habitat destruction, predation by introduced rats and cats (Greenway 1967), and over-collection for the museum trade (Oliver 1955).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.3. Forest - Subantarctic
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:No
  Occur in at least one PA:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Past Impact 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Past Impact 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Unspecified Rattus ]
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Past Impact 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Felis catus ]
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Past Impact 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

Bibliography [top]

Fleming, C. A. 1939. Birds of the Chatham Islands. Emu 38: 380-413, 492-509.

Greenway, J.C. 1967. Extinct and vanishing birds of the world. Dover Publications, New York.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Oliver, W. R. B. 1955. New Zealand birds. Reed, Wellington, New Zealand.


Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Anthornis melanocephala. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22728814A94997726. . Downloaded on 15 August 2018.
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