|Scientific Name:||Puffinus mauretanicus Lowe, 1921|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Identification information:||33 cm. Medium-sized, rather dark shearwater. Upperparts dark brown contrasting slightly with the dirty, variably marked brown-whitish underparts. Most individuals show dusky undertail coverts and armpits. Similar spp. Easily told from Manx Shearwater P. puffinus by lack of strong contrast between upperparts and underparts. Dark individuals could be mistaken for Sooty Shearwater P. griseus but always show a white belly patch and lack the scythe-like wings and heavier flight of that species.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A4bcde ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Genovart, M., Andrews, D., Arcos, J., Blasco, J., Guilford, T., Louzao, M., McMinn, M., Oro, D., Porter, R. & Tanner, K.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Benstead, P., Bird, J., Calvert, R., Derhé, M., Harding, M., Lascelles, B., Martin, R, Moreno, R., O'Brien, A., Peet, N. & Symes, A.|
This species has a small breeding range and a relatively small population which is undergoing an extremely rapid decline, largely related to low adult (and immature) survival rates. Main threats are fisheries by-catch at sea and predation at breeding colonies by introduced mammals, factors that would explain the added mortality of the species. Population models predict over 90% decline in three generations with an average extinction time of about 60 years, hence qualifying the species as Critically Endangered.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
The species breeds exclusively in the Balearic Islands, Spain, occupying the five major island groups: Menorca, Mallorca, Cabrera, Ibiza and Formentera. During the breeding period (late February - early July) the main foraging areas are located along the Mediterranean shelf of the Iberian Peninsula, mainly around the central Catalan coast, the Ebro Delta-Columbretes area and the Cape Nao (Arcos and Oro 2002, Louzao et al. 2006a, Arcos et al. 2012a, Meier et al. 2015), potentially exploiting the closest productive areas with respect to their breeding colonies (Louzao et al. 2011a). Some birds also exploit foraging grounds at the extreme of their distribution in the continental shelf off Algeria and Morocco as well as in the Gulf of Lions (Ruiz and Martí 2004, Louzao et al. 2012, Meier et al. 2015, Afán 2016), in addition to the waters around the Balearic archipelago (Ruiz and Martí 2004, Louzao et al. 2011b). The bulk of the population leaves the Mediterranean after breeding, and concentrates off the Atlantic coasts of SW Europe in summer-autumn, mainly in Spain, Portugal and France, and also SW UK and NW Morocco (Le Mao and Yésou 1993, Ruiz and Martí 2004, Ramírez et al. 2008, Arcos et al. 2009, Guilford et al. 2012, Pérez-Roda 2015). Birds return to the western Mediterranean in autumn (mainly October), and spend the winter months roughly in the same foraging areas used during the breeding period (Le Mao and Yésou 1993, Ruiz and Martí 2004, Guilford et al. 2012).
At one population, on Menorca, which shows evidence of past hybridisation with the closely related Yelkouan shearwater (Puffinus yelkouan), migratory behaviour and breeding phenologies appear to be intermediate with Yelkouan’s, with a majority of birds apparently remaining in the western Mediterranean post-breeding (Meier 2015).
Native:Algeria; France; Gibraltar; Ireland; Italy; Morocco; Portugal; Spain; United Kingdom
Vagrant:Belgium; Denmark; Germany; Israel; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Sweden; Tunisia
Present - origin uncertain:Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Faroe Islands; Greece; Libya; Malta; Monaco; Montenegro; Slovenia
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Estimates for the breeding population size in the last two decades ranged from about 2,000 to 4,500 pairs (Ruiz and Martí 2004, Arcos 2011a), with the current official figure being 3,142 pairs (ACAP 2012). This includes: Mallorca 900, Menorca 405, Cabrera 475, Ibiza 650, Formentera 712. However, these figures should only be taken as indicative, as breeding sites are most often inaccessible, and therefore their census relies on indirect methods (e.g. counts of rafts, vocalisations, etc.) that are subject to strong biases and inaccuracy. This calls for particular caution in inferring population trends from such data, as estimates from one year to another might simply vary because of changes in methodological assumptions, people involved, and environmental conditions during counts or simply subjective perceptions. In fact, recent research at sea using two approaches (boat-based surveys and coastal counts at the Gibraltar Strait migration bottleneck) point to a global population of about 25,000 individuals, suggesting that the breeding population could be larger than previously assumed (Arcos et al. 2012b, Arroyo et al. 2014). Starting from these global figures, and assuming that the population structure was at equilibrium, Genovart et al. (2016) inferred a breeding population size of about 7,200 pairs, although this optimistic figure should also be taken with caution.|
Trend Justification: Using a population estimate of 2,000-2,400 breeding pairs, Oro et al. (2004) estimated a mean decline of 7.4% per year and a mean extinction time, as estimated by population viability analysis, of just over 40 years. This equates to an ongoing population decline of more than 80% in three generations (54 years). A new modelling assessment was conducted recently, using new demographic data and improved capture-recapture modelling procedures (Genovart et al. 2016). Furthermore, the new modelling used as a departure point a global population estimate of 23,780 birds, consistent with the recent estimates at sea (Arroyo et al. 2014). Despite these improvements in both the analysis and the background information, the trend was still severely declining, with a population decline of 14% per year, and an average extinction time of 61 years if the current trend is maintained over time. Note that this analysis was conducted assuming a population at equilibrium, that would estimate 7,200 breeding pairs, something that still needs to be confirmed on the ground. If the breeding population is found to be lower, the time to extinction would be shorter. Moreover, the analyses were based on data from an (important) colony free of predators, meaning that the average survival rate of whole population could be even lower.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
The Balearic shearwater breeds in caves, burrows and crevices on islets and coastal cliffs in the Balearic Islands. Breeding colonies are relatively small, from isolated nests to loose aggregations of 10s or even a few 100s of breeding pairs (Ruiz and Martí 2004). The species is very philopatric, as is the rule with Procellariiformes. Adults do not commence breeding until their third year at the earliest, although most breeding recruitment tends to occur between 4 and 6 years (Oro et al. 2004, Genovart et al. 2016). Birds lay eggs in early-mid March (exceptionally late February); hatching occurs in late April-early May; and adults leave the colonies around late June, a few days before the chicks fledge (early July) (Ruiz and Martí 2004, Tan 2016). Pelagic prey (especially small pelagic fish) seem to be the main prey for the species, but it also makes extensive use of discards both in the Mediterranean and when in the Atlantic, and can also feed on planktonic organisms (Le Mao and Yésou 1993, Arcos et al. 2001, Arcos and Oro 2002, Louzao et al. 2006b, 2011b, 2015, Navarro et al. 2009, Bonnin 2016, Meier et al. in press). The species has been recorded diving to more than 35m (Meier 2015). At sea, it has a rather coastal distribution, and tends to select productive shelf areas most often related to oceanographic frontal systems (Louzao et al. 2006a, Louzao et al. 2012, Oppel et al. 2012, Pérez-Roda 2015, Afán 2016). During breeding, they tend to forage over the closest productive grounds to their breeding colonies (Louzao et al. 2011a, Meier et al. 2015) coinciding with favourable winds during the outward stages of foraging trips (Afán 2016), but some individuals also head to productive areas at the extreme of their distribution, assisted by optimal winds during short time windows (Afán 2016). These productive waters are rich in small pelagic fishes (Palomera et al. 2007, Bellido et al. 2008), where different types of fishing activity also co-occur and can provide substantial amounts of discards to shearwaters (Arcos and Oro, 2002). The species appears to be more coastal during the non-breeding period (Arcos and Oro 2002, Mouriño et al. 2003, Arcos et al. 2012a, Oppel et al. 2012), forming large aggregations that vary in location between (and within) years, presumably due to fluctuations in the availability of schools of small pelagic fish (Le Mao and Yésou 1993, Gutiérrez and Figuerola 1995).
Fishing discards influence aspects of their ecology such as trophic (Käkelä et al., 2010; Navarro et al. 2009) and movement ecology (Bartumeus et al. 2010). Fishing discards have also positive and negative impacts on life history traits such as breeding performance and survival, respectively (Louzao et al. 2006c, Genovart et al. 2016). Regarding mortality in fisheries, a notable finding has been the increase of bycatch probability on longlines in the absence of trawling and purse-seining activity, in addition to other factors such as the annual cycle and the time of setting the fishing gear (García-Barcelona et al. 2010, Laneri et al. 2010).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||No|
|Generation Length (years):||15|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
This is a long-lived species and therefore threats affecting adult mortality have the most impact. Adult survival is the main conservation concern, as this is unusually low for a Procellariiform (Oro et al. 2004, Genovart et al. 2016). As such, the main threats to this species identified are those causing adult mortality, particularly predation by introduced carnivores in the breeding colonies and fisheries by-catch at sea (Arcos 2011a).
Predation by introduced mammals is a major global concern for seabirds (Jones et al. 2008, Croxall et al. 2012), and a serious threat for the Balearic shearwater, particularly in the case of carnivores such as cats, martens and genets, that are present in around 25% of the colonies and affect about 38% of the breeding population (Arcos and Oro 2004, Ruiz and Martí 2004, Arcos et al. 2012c). The presence of rats is more widespread but has a lower impact, putatively affecting only breeding performance (i.e. through predating on eggs and chicks, but not affecting adults). Permanent monitoring programmes should be implemented to facilitate early detection of alien species in reference colonies.
On the other hand, fisheries bycatch is a more widespread threat affecting both adults and immatures, and has been recently shown to be the main driver of the decline of the species, with almost 50% of the mortality being caused by this factor (Genovart et al. 2016). Demersal longlining seems to be the most problematic gear causing bycatch, although other fishing gears have been shown to also capture birds, and could have severe effects at the population level, including purse-seine, pelagic longlining and trawling (Arcos et al. 2008, Abelló and Esteban 2012, Boué et al. 2013, ICES 2013, Oliveira et al. 2015, Cortés et al. in litt., García-Barcelona et al. in litt.). The species' gregarious behaviour and its close association with fishing boats while seeking discards means that occasional "mass mortality" is likely to occur when long-line boats fish close to flocks (Arcos et al. 2008, Laneri et al. 2010, García-Barcelona et al. 2010). Hence bycatch appears to be fairly common but often occurs on an irregular basis (following a distribution of excess of zeros), suggesting that estimates derived from observations on a limited number of trips onboard fishing vessels could be largely underestimated. Increasing evidence on this has been compiled in the last few years, with events of up to a hundred or more birds caught in a single event (Louzao et al. 2011, ICES 2013, Oliveira et al. 2015).
Due to the congregatory behaviour of the species, acute pollution events, such as oil spills, also pose a serious threat, as a large number of casualties could result from a spill occurring in a congregation area (Ruiz and Martí 2004, Gutiérrez 2011). Other threats include: the reduction of prey due to fishing overexploitation; a potential reduction in fishing discards (an alternative to the overexploited natural prey) and/or anthropogenic environmental change (Arcos 2011a); habitat degradation and disturbance in the breeding grounds; background pollution (Oro et al. 2008); the development of marine windfarms (Arcos 2011a); light pollution which disorientates fledglings (Rodríguez et al. 2015) and plastic residues (Codina-Garcia et al., 2013, Bonnin 2016). Predation by Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus in the breeding colonies has also been recently reported (García 2009, Wynn et al. 2010), though this should be considered as a factor of natural mortality that likely has little influence on the decline of the species. The gradual northward movement of the non-breeding population may be affecting immature and adult survival, and this shift may be due to climate change or alterations in fish distributions as a result of fisheries' activities (Yésou 2003, Wynn et al. 2007). The recent demographic decline has not yet decreased the species' genetic variability, and connectivity found among colonies at least does not exacerbate the species' extinction risk (Genovart et al. 2007).
Conservation Actions Underway
All breeding sites are currently protected as Special Protection Areas (SPAs) under the Natura 2000 network, with the unique exception of the colony of Punta Prima in Formentera, where new information has revealed that the prevailing colony (50 pp.) lays right outside the SPA (and the overlapping Important Bird Area, IBA) designated for this species (Arcos 2011a). The management plans for the Balearic SPAs have not been implemented yet. Management plans are therefore limited to colonies covered by other designations, such as the National Park of Cabrera, the Natural Park of Sa Dragonera and Reserves Naturals des Vedrà, es Vedranell i els illots de Ponent, among others. Rat eradication campaigns have been conducted at several colonies, including Cabrera archipelago and Dragonera Island, where after a programme of aerial bait drops in 2011 no rats or mice had been detected (Mayol et al. 2012). Less effort has been directed at the most concerning colonies where carnivores are present (e.g. Formentera and Menorca).
At sea, the Spanish Government designated in 2014 a network of marine SPAs taking as a reference the inventory of marine IBAs conducted by SEO/BirdLife (Arcos et al. 2009). Portugal also designated a few SPAs on the mainland coast recently, including congregatory areas for the Balearic shearwater previously identified as IBAs by SPEA (Ramírez et al. 2008). France has also proposed a network of SPAs that include hotspots for the species. Management plans for all the marine SPAs are still pending. Finally, evidence gathering for potential at-sea concentrations which could form SPA proposals are underway in the UK.
Action Plans for the species have been published at local, national or international level in 1991, 1999, 2004, 2005 (Jones et al. 2008) and 2011 (Arcos et al. 2011a). A LIFE project for the species ran from 1991-2001 (Ruiz and Martí 2004), and Spain and Portugal had a joint LIFE project running from 2004-2008 aimed at identifying marine IBAs, including for this species (Ramírez et al. 2008, Arcos et al. 2009). A number of actions have been implemented through Species Guardians SEO/BirdLife and SPEA as part of BirdLife's Preventing Extinctions programme including: coordinated coastal and boat-based counts, gathering information to assess the impact of bycatch on the species, communicating and disseminating information on the species and contributing to the updated Species Action Plan published in 2011 (SEO/Birdlife and SPEA 2013).
Despite the above advances, there is an overall lack of proper monitoring and conservation action by the relevant administrations. Most research, conservation and monitoring at present are conducted thanks to the initiative of a few research centres and NGOs (particularly BirdLife partners). This work includes bycatch assessment (questionnaires, onboard observers) and evaluation of mitigation measures, the identification of hotspots at sea through boat surveys, coastal counts and tracking studies (breeding and non-breeding grounds), and breeding monitoring and population demography assessment.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Thoroughly study the problem of bycatch by fisheries and develop awareness campaigns directed at the fishing sector, plus assess and implement the appropriate mitigation measures, throughout the whole distribution range of the species in order to mitigate this threat (i.e. implementation of the EU Seabird Action Plan to reduce bycatch). For demersal longlines, the most alarming fishery in the Mediterranean, significant work has been conducted in recent years at assessing the problem (Laneri et al. 2010, García-Barcelona et al. 2010, Cortés et al. in preparation) and testing potential mitigation measures (Cortés and Gonzalez-Solís in preparation), with nocturnal setting being a good candidate to minimize bycatch. Ongoing work by BirdLife’s Seabird Task Force (STF) is studying the feasibility of implementing such measure, as well as other alternatives, with the aim of pushing for the adoption of an agreed solution in the near future. Control and eradicate introduced predators (with particular emphasis on carnivores) in breeding colonies identified to be at risk. Implement biosecurity measures to prevent introduced predators from re-establishing. Ensure effective protection for nesting sites and marine hotspots, and the implementation of monitoring schemes and management plans, including the monitoring of breeding colonies to estimate demographic parameters. Develop a rapid response plan for a potential oil spill close to main feeding and breeding areas. Raise awareness. Study small pelagic fish populations in the western Mediterranean and in North East Atlantic (from the NW of Morocco to the English Channel) to assess extent of over-exploitation and how this affects the species. Assess the impact of pollutants and heavy metals on this species. Increase awareness of the negative impacts of light pollution near breeding colonies. Improve understanding of at-sea distribution, including during the non-breeding season. Conduct research to better understand the reasons for the discrepancies between breeding and non-breeding population estimates.
Abelló, P. and Esteban, A. 2012. Trawling bycatch does affect Balearic Shearwaters Puffinus mauretanicus. Revista Catalana d'Ornitologia 28: 34-39.
Afán, I. 2016. Ecological response of marine predators to spatio-temporal environmental variability in resource availability. PhD thesis, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain. 265 p.
Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels. 2012. Species assessments: Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus. http://www.acap.aq/ .
Aguilar, J. S. 1999. Species Action Plan for the Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus in Europe.
Arcos, J. M. 2011. ¿Cuantas pardelas baleares hay? Discrepancias entre los censos en colonias y en el mar. In: Valeiras, X., Muñoz, G., Bermejo, A., Arcos, J.M. y Paterson, A.M. (ed.), Actas del 6º Congreso del GIAM y el Taller internacional sobre la Ecología de Paiños y Pardelas en el sur de Europa, pp. 117-121. Boletín del Grupo Ibérico de Aves Marinas.
Arcos, J.M., Arroyo, G.M., Bécares, J., Mateos-Rodríguez, M., Rodríguez, B., Muñoz, A.R., Ruiz, A., de la Cruz, A., Cuenca, D., Onrubia, A. & Oro, D. 2012a. New estimates at sea suggest a larger global population of the Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus. In: Yésou, P., Bacceti, N. & Sultana, J. (eds) Ecology and conservation of Mediterranean seabirds and other bird species under the Barcelona Convention. Proceedings of the 13th MEDMARAVIS Pan-Mediterranean Symposium, Alghero (Sardinia). Pp. 84-94..
Arcos, J.M., Bécares, J., Cama, A. & Rodríguez, B. 2012c. 2012c. Estrategias marinas, grupo aves: evaluación inicial y buen estado ambiental. IEO & SEO/BirdLife. Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Merdio Ambiente http://www.magrama.gob.es/es/costas/temas/estrategias-marinas/0_Documento_grupo_aves_tcm7-223807.pdf.
Arcos, J.M., Bécares, J., Rodríguez, B. and Ruiz, A. 2009. Áreas Importantes para la Conservación de las Aves marinas en España. LIFE04NAT/ES/000049 . Sociedad Española de Ornitología (SEO/BirdLife), Madrid.
Arcos, J.M., Bécares, J., Rodríguez, B., Ruiz, A. & Oro, D. 2011. How many Balearic shearwaters are out there? Discrepancies between breeding and at sea estimates. Presentation at the 13th MEDMARAVIS Pan-Mediterranean Symposium, Alghero, Sardinia. 14 - 17 October 2011..
Arcos J.M., Bécares J., Villero D., Brotons L., Rodríguez B. & Ruiz A. 2012b. Assessing the location and stability of foraging hotspots for pelagic seabirds: an approach to identify marine Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in Spain. Biological Conservation 156: 32-40.
Arcos, J.M. (compiler). 2011. International species action plan for the Balearic shearwater, Puffinus mauretanicus. SEO/BirdLife & BirdLife International.
Arcos, J. M.; Louzao, M.; Oro, D. 2008. Fishery ccosystem impacts and management in the Mediterranean: seabirds point of view. In: Nielsen, J.; Dodson, J.; Friedland, K.; Hamon, T.; Hughes, N.; Musick, J.; Verspoor, E. (ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth World Fisheries Congress: Reconciling Fisheries with Conservation, pp. 587-596. American Fisheries Society, Symposium 49, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Arcos, J.M., Massutí, E., Abelló, P. & Oro, D. 2000. Fish associated with floating drifting objects as a feeding resource for Balearic Shearwaters Puffinus mauretanicus during the breeding season. Ornis Fennica 77: 177-182.
Arcos, J. M.; Oro, D. 2002. Significance of fisheries discards for a threatened Mediterranean seabird, the Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 239: 209-220.
Arcos, J.M. & Oro, D. 2004. Pardela balear, Puffinus mauretanicus. In: Madroño, A., González, C. & Atienza, J.C (ed.), Libro Rojo de las Aves de España, pp. 46-50. Dirección General para la Biodiversidad - SEO/BirdLife, Madrid.
Arroyo, G.M., Mateos, M., Muñoz, A.R., de la Cruz, A., Cuenca, A.D. y Onrubia, A. 2011. New population estimates of the critically endangered Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus. Poster at 13th MEDMARAVIS Pan-Mediterranean Symposium, Alghero, Sardinia. 14 - 17 October de 2011.
Arroyo, G.M., Mateos-Rodríguez, M., Muñoz, A.R., de la Cruz, A., Cuenca, D. and Onrubia, A. 2014. New population estimates of a critically endangered species, the Balearic Shearwater Pufnus mauretanicus, based on coastal migration counts. Bird Conservation International 26(1): 87-99.
Bartumeus, F., Giuggioli, L., Louzao, M., Bretagnolle, V., Oro, D., Levin, S. 2010. Fishery discards distort seabird search patterns. Current Biology 20: 215-222.
Bonnin, A. 2016. Trophic ecology of two predators from the Bay of Biscay: the Albacore and the Balearic shearwater. Master thesis. Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, France.
Boue, A., Louzao, M., Arcos, J.M., Delord, K., Weimerskirch, H., Cortes, V., Barros, N., Guilford, T., Arroyo, G.M., Oro, D., Andrade, J., Garcia, D., Dalloyau, S., Gonzalez-Solis, J., Newton, S., Wynn, R. and Micol, T. 2013. First Meeting of the Population and Conservation Status Working Group. Recent and current research on Balearic shearwater on colonies and in Atlantic and Mediterranean areas. Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels, La Rochelle, France.
Codina-García, M., Militão, T., Moreno, J., González-Solís, J. 2013. Plastic debris in Mediterranean seabirds. Marine pollution bulletin 77(1): 220-226.
Croxall, J.P., S.H.M. Butchart, B. Lascelles, A.J. Stattersfield, B. Sullivan, A. Symes & P. Taylor. 2012. Seabird conservation status, threats and priority actions: a global assessment. Bird Conservation International 22: 1-34.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N. and Kirwan, G.M. 1992. Balearic Shearwater (Puffinus mauretanicus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
García-Barcelona, S.; Ortiz de Urbina, J. M.; de la Serna, J. M.; Alot, E.; Macias, D. 2010. Seabird bycatch in Spanish Mediterranean large pelagic longline fisheries, 2000-2008. Aquatic Living Resources 23: 363–371.
García, D. 2009. Predation on the endemic Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus by Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus. Alauda 3: 230-231.
Genovart, M., Arcos, J.M., Álvarez, D., McMinn, M., Meier, R., Wynn, R., Guilford, T. & Oro, D. 2016. Demography of the critically endangered Balearic shearwater: the impact of fisheries and time to extinction. Journal of Applied Ecology 53 (4): 1158–1168.
Genovart, M.; Oro, D.; Juste, J.; Bertorelle, G. 2007. What genetics tell us about the conservation of the critically endangered Balearic Shearwater. Biological Conservation 137(2): 283-293.
Guilford T., Wynn R., McMinn M., Rodríguez A., Fayet A., Maurice L., Jones A. & Meier R. 2012. Geolocators Reveal Migration and Pre-Breeding Behaviour of the Critically Endangered Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus. PLoS ONE 7(3): e33753.
Gutiérrez, R. 2011. Un vertido de petróleo amenaza el delta del Ebro. Aves y naturaleza: 37.
ICES. 2013. Report of the Workshop to Review and Advise on Seabird Bycatch (WKBYCS). ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2013/WKBYCS/wkbycs_final_2013.pdf.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Jones, H.P.; Tershy, B.R.; Zavaleta, E.S.; Croll, D.A.; Keitt, B.S.; Finkelstein, M.E.; Howald, G.R. 2008. Severity of the effects of invasive rats on seabirds: a global review. Conservation Biology 22(1): 16-26.
Käkelä, R., Käkelä, A., Martínez-Abraín, A.,Sarzo, B., Louzao, M. Gerique, C., Villuendas, E., Strandberg, U., Furness, R.W., Oro, D. 2010. The use of fatty acid signatures to assess bird diet: An application to a globally endangered Mediterranean seabird species. Marine Ecology Progress Series 398: 245–258.
Laneri, K., Louzao, M., Martínez-Abraín, A., Arcos, J.M., Belda, E., Guallart, J., Sánchez, A., Giménez, M., Maestre, R., Oro, D. 2010. Trawling moratoria influences longline seabird bycatch in the Mediterranean: new insights from a small scale fishery. Marine Ecology Progress Series 420: 241–252.
Le Mao, P. & Yésou, P. 1993. The annual cycle of Balearic Shearwaters and western-Mediterranean Yellow-legged Gulls: some ecological considerations. In Aguilar, J. S., Monbailliu, X. & Paterson, A. M. (Eds.), Status and conservation of seabirds. Proceedings of the 2nd Mediterranean Seabird Symposium: 135-145.
Louzao, M. 2006. Conservation biology of the critically endangered Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus: bridging the gaps between breeding colonies and marine foraging grounds. PhD thesis, University of the Balearic Islands, Spain.
Louzao, M. Arcos, J.M., Guijarro, B., Valls, M. & Oro, D. 2011b. Seabird-trawling interactions: factors affecting species-specific to regional community utilisation of fisheries waste. Fisheries Oceanography 20 (4): 263-277.
Louzao, M., Arcos, J. M., Laneria, K., Beldae, E., Guallartf, J., Sánchez, A., Giménez, M., Maestre, R. and Oro, D. 2011. ["Evidence of the incidental capture of the Balearic Shearwater at sea"]. Proceedings of the 6 CONGRESS of GIAM and the International workshop on petrels and shearwaters ecology at southern Europe. 34: 165-168.
Louzao, M.; Arcos, J. M.; Oro, D. 2006. Biologia de la conservació d'un ocell críticament amenaçat: la Baldrijta Puffinus mauretanicus. Anuari Ornitologic de les Balears 21: 43-49.
Louzao, M., Delord, K., García, D., Boué, A. and Weimerskirch, H. 2012. Protecting Persistent Dynamic Oceanographic Features: Transboundary Conservation Efforts Are Needed for the Critically Endangered Balearic Shearwater. PLoS One 7(5): 1-12.
Louzao, M., García, D., Rodríguez, B. & Abelló, P. 2015. Evidence of krill in the diet of balearic shearwaters Puffinus mauretanicus. Marine Ornithology 43: 49-51.
Louzao, M., Hyrenbach, D., Arcos, J.M., Abelló, P., Gil de Sola, L. & Oro, D. 2006. Oceanographic habitat of a critically endangered Mediterranean Procellariiform: implications for the design of Marine Protected Areas. Ecological Applications 16(5): 1683-1695.
Louzao, M., Navarro, J., Forero, M.G, Igual, J.M., Genovart, M., Hobson, K.A., Oro, D. 2011a. Exploiting the closest productive area: geographical segregation of foraging grounds in a critically endangered seabird. Marine Ecology Progress Series 429: 291–301.
Mayol, J., Mayol, M., Domenech, O., Oliver, J., McMinn, M. and Rodríguez, A. 2012. Aerial broadcast of rodenticide on the island of Sa Dragonera (Balearic Islands, Spain). A promising rodent eradication experience on a Mediterranean island. IUCN Aliens 32(29-32).
Meier, R. E. 2015. The at-sea behaviour and ecology of the critically endangered Balearic shearwater. PhD Thesis, University of Southampton, UK.
Meier, R.E., Votier, S. C., Wynn, R. B., Guilford, T., McMinn Grivé, M., Rodríguez, A., Newton, J., Maurice, L., Chouvelon, T., Dessier, A., and Trueman, C. N. Tracking, feather moult and stable isotopes reveal foraging behaviour of a critically endangered seabird during the non-breeding season. Diversity and Distributions in press.
Meier,R.E., Wynn, R.B., Votier, S.C., McMinn Grivé, M., Rodríguez, A., Maurice, L., van Loon, E.E., Jones, A.R., Suberg, L., Arcos, J.M., Morgan, G., Josey, S., Guilford, T. 2015. Consistent foraging areas and commuting corridors of the critically endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus in the northwestern Mediterranean. Biological Conservation 190: 87-97.
Mouriño J., Arcos F., Salvadores, R., Sandoval A. & Vidal C. 2003. Status of the Balearic shearwater (Puffinus mauretanicus) on the Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula). Scientia Marina 67 (2): 135-142.
Navarro, J., Louzao, M., Igual, J.M., Oro, D., Delgado, A., Arcos, J.M., Genovart, M., Hobson, K.A., &Forero, M.G. 2009. Seasonal changes in the diet of a critically endangered seabird and the importance of trawling discards. Marine Biology 156: 2571-2578.
Oliveira N., Henriques A., Miodonski J., Pereira J., Marujo D., Almeida A., Barros N., Andrade J., Marçalo A., Santos J., Oliveira I.B., Ferreira M., Araújo H., Monteiro S., Vingada J. & Ramírez I. 2015. Seabird bycatch in Portuguese mainland coastal fisheries: An assessment through on-board observations and fishermen interviews. Global Ecology and Conservation 3: 51–61.
Oppel S., Meirinho A., Ramírez I., Gardner B., O'Connell A.F., Miller P.I. & Louzao M. 2012. Comparison of five modelling techniques to predict the spatial distribution and abundance of seabirds. Biological Conservation 156: 94-104.
Oro, D.; Aguilar, J. S.; Igual, J. M.; Louzao, M. 2004. Modelling demography and extinction risk in the endangered Balearic shearwater. Biological Conservation 116: 93-102.
Oro, D., Louzao, M., Forero, M.G., Arcos, J.M., Genovart, M., Juste, J. & Igual, J.M. 2008. Investigaciones aplicadas a la conservación de una especie en peligro de extinción (la Pardela Balear en el Parque Nacional de Cabrera): Requerimientos ecológicos, demografía y dinámica de poblaciones. Proyectos de Investigación en Parques Nacionales: 2003-2006. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Madrid.
Pérez-Roda, A. 2015. Identifying Important Atlantic Areas for the conservation of Balearic shearwaters: spatial overlap with conservation areas. Master thesis. University of the Basque Country, Spain.
Ramírez, I.; Geraldes, P.; Meirinho, A.; Amorim, P.; Paiva, V. 2008. Important Bird Areas for seabirds in Portugal. Sociedade Portuguesa Para o Estudo das Aves, Lisbon.
Rodríguez, A., García, D., Rodríguez, B., Cardona, E., Parpal, L. and Pons, P. 2015. Artificial lights and seabirds: is light pollution a threat for the threatened Balearic petrels? Journal of Ornithology DOI: 10.1007/s10336-015-1232-3.
Ruiz, A.; Martí, R. 2004. La Pardelar balear. SEO/BirdLife, Madrid.
SEO/BirdLife and SPEA. 2013. Species Guardian - Balearic Shearwater Final Report. Preventing Extinctions Programme. BirdLife International.
Tan, L. 2016. Foraging and breeding behaviours and their relationships with breeding performance in a pelagic seabird. Master Thesis, University of the Basque Country, Spain.
Wynn, R. B.; Josey, S. A.; Martin, A. P.; Johns, D. G.; Yésou, P. 2007. Climate-driven range expansion of a critically endangered top predator in northeast Atlantic waters. Biology Letters 3(5): 529-532.
Wynn, R. B.; McMinn-Grivé, M.; Rodriguez-Molina, A. 2010. The predation of Balearic Shearwaters by Peregrine Falcons. British Birds 103(6): 350-353.
Yesou, P. 2003. Recent changes in the summer distribution of Balearic Shearwaters (Puffinus mauretanicus) off western France. Scientia Marina 67: 143-148.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Puffinus mauretanicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22728432A94984883.Downloaded on 17 October 2017.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|