Phylloscopus bonelli 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Phylloscopidae

Scientific Name: Phylloscopus bonelli (Vieillot, 1819)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Western Bonelli's Warbler
Taxonomic Source(s): AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Khwaja, N., Shutes, S., Symes, A.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Algeria; Andorra; Austria; Belgium; Benin; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Chad; Côte d'Ivoire; Czech Republic; France; Gambia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Italy; Libya; Liechtenstein; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Morocco; Netherlands; Niger; Nigeria; Poland; Portugal (Madeira - Vagrant); Senegal; Slovenia; Spain (Canary Is.); Switzerland; Togo; Tunisia; Western Sahara
Denmark; Finland; Gabon; Hungary; Ireland; Latvia; Norway; Slovakia; Sweden; United Kingdom
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:3380000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):2000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The global population is estimated to number 1,500,000-4,000,000 breeding pairs (del Hoyo et al. 2006), or 3,000,000-8,000,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  In Europe the overall trend from 1989-2013 was stable (EBCC 2015).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:3000000-8000000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:During the breeding season this species inhabits warm deciduous woodland comprising oak Quercus, birch Betula, beech Fagus and sweet chestnut Castanea, together with a mixture of other deciduous trees as well as pine Pinus, spruce Picea or larch Larix, and with a good ground layer of vegetation. It is also common in cork oak Q. suber and cedar woodland around the Mediterranean. In the west of its range it breeds in pine and oak scrub with undergrowth of bramble Rubus fruticosus, barberry Berberis or juniper Juniperus. In the African non-breeding range it is found in open woodland and thickets in dry steppe, bushy savanna and oases with acacia scrub. Breeding occurs from the end of April until August.  The nest is a dome-shaped ball made mostly of grasses, with some leaves, moss and hair. It is well concealed on the ground, usually on a bank and beneath overhanging vegetation, fallen tree or branches. Clutches are four to six eggs. It feeds on insects and other invertebrates. The species is migratory, wintering in a narrow belt along the southern edge of Sahara (Clement and Christie 2015).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):3.6
Movement patterns:Full Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is likely to be negatively affected by intensive management and overexploitation of woodlands (Correia et al. 2014).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II. Bern Convention Appendix II. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species within Europe.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Increases in tree diversity can improve habitat suitability for this species (Pereira et al. 2014).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:Yes
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.4. Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

Bibliography [top]

BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Clement, P. and Christie, D.A. 2015. Western Bonelli's Warbler (Phylloscopus bonelli). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Correia, R.A., Palmeirim, J.M. and Franco, A.M.A. 2014. Managing the future of Mediterranean cork oak woodlands: pitfalls of using incomplete species range models for climate change adaptation planning. Effects of climate and land management changes on conservation of Mediterranean Cork oak woodlands and their bird communities, pp. 24-46. PhD thesis.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2006. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 11: Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

EBCC. 2015. Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme. Available at:

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Pereira, P., Godinho, C., Roque, I., Marques, A., Branco, M. and Rabaça, J.E. 2014. Time to rethink the management intensity in a Mediterranean oak woodland: the response of insectivorous birds and leafchewing defoliators as key groups in the forest ecosystem. Annals of Forest Science 71(1): 25-32.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Phylloscopus bonelli. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22715255A87665883. . Downloaded on 14 August 2018.
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