|Scientific Name:||Acrocephalus aequinoctialis (Latham, 1790)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Identification information:||15 cm; 19 g. A medium-sized, predominantly grey reed-warbler with white feather edgings. Has obscure whitish supercilium extending from bill base backwards, olivaceous-grey cheek; above, olivaceous-grey, neutral grey on neck side and scapulars, many feathers with whitish margins, these narrow on back, broader on rump and undertail-coverts. Sexes alike. Juvenile is brighter grey than adults. Race pistor is larger than nominate. Voice. Calls "cha", "che" and "churr". Song is simple in comparison to congeners and involves the call notes above repeated in phrases of varying amplitude.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(i,iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Marks, T., Millett, J., Pierce, R. & Wegmann, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Bird, J., Butchart, S., Derhé, M., Dutson, G., Ekstrom, J. & North, A.|
This species is listed as Endangered because it is suspected to be confined to just two coral atolls in the Northern Line Islands, Kiribati. It has already been extirpated from one atoll and declines are suspected within parts of the remaining occupied range.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Acrocephalus aequinoctialis is endemic to Kiritimati (Christmas Island) and Teraina (Washington) islands in the Northern Line Islands, Kiribati. It remained common on Teraina in 1980 (Gupta 2007) and still is in the early 2010s (Ratita Bebe in litt.). It formerly occurred on Tabueran (Fanning), but was apparently extirpated in 1972. It was described as 'common' on Kiritimati in 1966 (Pratt et al. 1987), but just 400 individuals were estimated there in 1972 and it was 'scarce in the vicinity of settlement' by 1980 (Sherley 2001). Surveys on Kiritimati in 2007-2011 indicate that the species is widespread and locally common on the mainland and individuals occasionally visit small motu in the lagoons (R. Pierce in litt. 2012). Distribution on Kiritimati is patchy, e.g. there are large areas in the south-east of the island where the warbler is absent due to unsuitable habitat. Densities of up to 50 birds/km2 have been reported on Kiritimati (Pierce et al. 2007).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Pierce et al. (2007) recorded densities of up to 50 birds/km2 on Kiritimati and pairs reportedly occupy a territory of 1.8-2.3 ha, which coarsely equates to 100 mature individuals/km2. Combined, the islands of Kiritimati and Teraini have a land area of 336 km2, suggesting they could support a maximum of c.16,000-30,000 mature individuals. However, the species is absent from considerable areas of these two islands, likely due to unsuitable habitat, and occurs at lower densities, especially where invasive predators are present. Consequently a global population of 2,500-9,999 mature individuals is suspected, though this may prove to be an overestimate and further surveys are required. This is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals. Observations at Kiritimati in 2013 suggested that densities were highly variable, ranging from 0.1 to 1.1 birds per hectare and averaging 0.47/ha of surveyed habitat (VanderWerf 2014, Pierce et al. 2015).
Trend Justification: Population trends have not been empirically assessed, but the species has been extirpated from one island (Tabueran in the 1970s), and threats within its extant range include introduced predators and habitat degradation driven by a variety of processes. However, on Kiritimati, monitoring has been ongoing since 2007, but no declines have been detected (R. Pierce in litt. 2016). The species is precautionarily assessed as having a small ongoing decline. Should the species be found not to be declining overall, it would warrant downlisting to a lower threat category.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It occurs in vegetated areas with scattered dominant Tournefortia argentea trees (growing 4-6 m) and Cassytha filiformis mixed with dense Scaevola and many other indigenous shrubs, and sometimes with introduced coconut palms (Cocos nucifera), but not in areas with dense coconuts palms. Recent research found the species to be more abundant in areas with taller Heliotropium trees and taller Scaevola shrubs, less abundant in areas with increased Suriana shrubs, bare ground, and grass (VanderWerf et al. Pacific Science in press 2016) and absent from cleared or recently burnt areas that have been cleared or recently burned (R. Pierce in litt. 2012). Birds will cross relatively open grassy areas or sandflats and cross up to 300 m to access motu that have recently been cleared of Rattus exulans (R. Pierce in litt. 2012). The species has also been sighted in gardens close to human habitation (T. Mark in litt. 2010). It feeds on insects, including flies and dragonflies; and small lizards. It spends much of its time foraging on the ground, in low ground cover, and in dead or low branches close to ground level. It is sedentary and a weak flier. Breeding occurs from at least February-July. It is reportedly monogamous; females incubating 2-4 eggs in nests placed just below the canopy of Tournefortia argentea. The territory size is reportedly 1.8-2.3 ha. Maximum densities recorded in 2007 were 0.5 birds/ha (R. Pierce in litt. 2012). |
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||4.4|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||The land areas of Kiritimati and Teraina are 322 km2 and 14 km2 respectively, and both support introduced rats Rattus spp.and cats Felis catus (A.Wegmann in litt. 2008), although the spread of black rats R. rattus on Kiritimati appears to have slowed or stalled, with black rats being relatively rare beyond the inhabited areas of the island and outer beaches (R. Pierce in litt. 2016, Pierce et al. 2015). Although the rate of spread of R. rattus has been unusually slow, it does need ongoing monitoring. The successful management of T. argentea trees is likely to be a significant factor for the species (T. Mark in litt. 2010). Hunting by children with slingshots may also pose a threat (A.Wegmann in litt. 2008), but only locally. Kiritimati Atoll is also suffering from poorly planned immigration leading to degradation of remaining habitats (J. Millet in litt. 2008); principal threats include habitat loss from fires, clearing for coconuts, development and habitat modification (e.g. proliferation of the weed Pluchea indica following fire, and potentially Rattus rattus impacts [Pierce et al. 2007]).|
Conservation Actions Underway
A survey for the species gathered information on baseline population density, habitat preference and threats in 2007. This survey has made a number of recommendations for further conservation work (Pierce et al. 2007). Subsequently, the population has been monitored annually or 2-yearly at several sites which to date show no signs of decline (Pierce et al. 2015). Pacific rats were eradicated from many motu in the central lagoons in 2009 (Pierce and Brown 2009) and this was followed by colonisation and breeding by Bokikokiko on some islands (Pierce et al. 2015). Black rats are being monitored in core part of habitat on Kiritimati and de-ratted motu are also being monitored at least annually to check for reinvasion. Contingency plans are in place for re-invaded motu. Habitat parameters are better understood (VanderWerf et al. in prep 2016). An assessment of suitability of Palmyra (VanderWerf 2014) and Malden (Pierce et al. 2016) was made with the former being considered to provide some suitable habitat. Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue with management actions currently underway as above. Step up biosecurity at Kiritimati and Kiribati generally. Continue with annual or biannual monitoring in May-June to determine whether the population is in decline and if so, where and what are the causes, and what contingency plan is best implemented (Pierce et al. 2007, 2015). Identify suitable habitat that supports the species. Advocate for protection of key habitats from fire, development etc, e.g. by engaging with key landowners, community and Government to identify risks, opportunities, solutions, etc and gaining better community buy-in (Pierce et al. 2007, Pierce 2010). Continue with surveillance of rodent eradication success from Kiritimati motu and monitor outcomes for seabirds and warbler (Pierce et al. 2015). Continue to use external advice to address biosecurity issues, e.g. spread of Pluchea and the potential arrival of invasive ants (Pierce et al. 2007). All surveyed sites should have the habitat described and rat trapping surveys completed. Implement rat trapping at important sites. Investigate the feasibility of emergency translocations to another island, e.g Orona in Phoenix Islands (Pierce et al. 2007).
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2006. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 11: Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Pierce R. 2010. Technical support and capacity building for the Wildlife Conservation Unit and Quarantine at Kiritimati, Kiribati, Report No. 2 December 2010. Eco Oceania Pty Ltd Report for Government of Kiribati and NZAID.
Pierce, R.; Anderson, R.; VanderWerf, E; Young, L. 2007. Surveys and capacity building in Kiritimati (Christmas Island, Kiribati), June 2007, to assist in restoration of populations of Bokikokiko and seabirds.
Pierce R., Brown, D. 2009. Technical support and capacity building for the Wildlife Conservation Unit and Quarantine at Kiritimati, Kiribati, May-June 2009. Eco Oceania Pty Ltd Report for Government of Kiribati and NZAID.
Pierce R., D. Brown, K. Taabu, E. Vander Werf. 2015. Guidelines for monitoring birds and invasive species at Kiritimati, Kiribati. Eco Oceania Pty Ltd Report for Government of Kiribati, NZMFAT and SPREP. .
Pratt, H. D.; Bruner, P. L.; Berrett, D. G. 1987. A field guide to the birds of Hawaii and the tropical Pacific. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Sherley, G. 2001. Bird conservation priorities and a draft avifauna conservation strategy for the Pacific Islands region. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa.
Vanderwerf, E.A. 2014. Assessment of Palmyra Atoll as a Translocation Site for the Bokikokiko or Line Island Warbler. Report for Island Conservation.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Acrocephalus aequinoctialis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22714802A94427796.Downloaded on 25 April 2018.|
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