|Scientific Name:||Oenanthe isabellina (Temminck, 1829)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Afghanistan; Algeria; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bulgaria; Chad; China; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Cyprus; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Georgia; Greece; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lebanon; Libya; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mongolia; Morocco; Niger; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Somalia; South Sudan; Sudan; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Yemen
Vagrant:Bhutan; Cameroon; Denmark; Finland; France; Gambia; Germany; Ireland; Japan; Myanmar; Nepal; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Rwanda; Seychelles; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sweden; Switzerland; United Kingdom; Zambia
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 2,060,000-6,230,000 pairs, which equates to 4,130,000-12,500,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms 15% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 27,500,000-83,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.|
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in arid, open, sparsely vegetated country, including dry plains, mountain and lowland steppes, semi-desert, wadis and desert margins, commonly where burrowing rodents, such as gerbil (Rhombomys opimus), occur. In Armenia, it is found in rolling semi-desert with Tamarix, Artemisia, Euphorbia, Alhagi, Atraphaxis and Gypsophila, and is usually on south-facing mountain steppe with Astragalus. Breeding occurs from mid-April to mid-July in Israel, April-May in Jordan, March-June in Armenia and Baluchistan and sometimes as early as mid-February in Turkmenistan but normally late March to July in southern Russia and late April to mid-July in Mongolia. The nest is a shallow, bulky cup of dried grass, roots and hair, lined with hair, wool and feathers. It is set deep in a rodent burrow or burrow of a similar mammal and less often in and old bee-eater (Meropidae) hole or occasionally in a natural hole or crevice. Clutches are four to seven eggs. The diet is mainly invertebrates, particularly insects such as beetles and ants and vegetable matter. The species is migratory (Collar 2015).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||4.1|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||The species is linked to some extent to populations of burrow-nesting rodents, which supply nest-holes. As a result, declines in these species, such as falls in gerbil numbers due to ploughing, may impact this species (Collar 2015).|
Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II. Bern Convention Appendix II. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species within Europe .
Conservation Actions Proposed
No conservation measures are thought to be needed for this species within its European range.
BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
Collar, N. 2015. Isabelline Wheatear (Oenanthe isabellina). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Oenanthe isabellina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22710333A87931767.Downloaded on 20 February 2018.|
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