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Cyanecula svecica 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Muscicapidae

Scientific Name: Cyanecula svecica
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Bluethroat
French Gorgebleue
Synonym(s):
Luscinia svecica (Linnaeus, 1758)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.
Justification:
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Cambodia; Canada; Chad; China; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Hong Kong; Hungary; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Myanmar; Nepal; Netherlands; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Canary Is. - Vagrant); Sri Lanka; Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Thailand; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States (Georgia); Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; Yemen
Vagrant:
Bhutan; Côte d'Ivoire; Faroe Islands; Gambia; Iceland; Ireland; Korea, Republic of; Liechtenstein; Niger; Taiwan, Province of China
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:41200000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):2000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Rich et al. (2004) estimate the global population to number 2,000,000 individuals. In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 4,460,000-7,760,000 pairs, which equates to 8,930,000-15,500,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 25% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 35,720,000-62,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in China; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; < c.1,000 individuals on migration and < c.1,000 wintering individuals in Korea; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:35000000-64999999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:For breeding, this species appears to require copious low dense vegetation with patches of open ground. It breeds in ecotone habitats between forest and plain or open areas at tree-line, including wooded tundra, mountain steppe, subalpine scrub, marshland with low woody cover, clumps of willow (Salix), alder (Alnus) and birch (Betula) on floodplains, riverbank thickets, reedy and shrub-dominated lakeshores, bushy sites near water. The breeding season is from late April to July in central Europe, from late May in Scandinavia, early April to June in Armenia, June-July in Ladakh, May-July in China and May/June-August in North America. The nest is a deep cup of leaves, small twigs, dry grass, rootlets, plant down and moss, which is occasionally lined with animal hair. It is placed among grass and scrub on wet ground and is commonly associated with topographic features such as a hummock, gulley, lip of a bank, or tussock. Clutches are four to seven eggs. The diet is principally invertebrates, particularly insects but it does take some seeds and fruit in the autumn (Collar 2015). The species is mainly migratory, with west Palearctic populations wintering in patches across the Mediterranean Basin and the northern Afrotropics and eastern populations in the Indian subcontinent (Snow and Perris 1998).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):4.2
Movement patterns:Full Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In Europe, this species experiences pronounced but largely unexplained population fluctuations (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997, Collar 2015). Some negative trends appear to be explained by natural succession in marshland, drainage and management practices such as reed-cutting, seedling removal and cattle grazing (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997), but recovery has taken place without the reversal of these circumstances. In Spain, during the 1990s it may have suffered from degradation of habitat through grazing and in Austria, significant losses have occurred during the 19th century due to drainage and it now faces threats there due to stabilization of lake levels, successional loss of reed-belt, and occupation of secondary habitats on arable land (where nest predation elevated) (Collar 2015).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II. EU Birds Directive Annex I. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species within its European range.

Conservation Actions Proposed
In Bavaria, growing numbers may collapse unless succession is contained through habitat management (Collar 2015). This species would benefit from further research on the causes of population fluctuations.

Classifications [top]

15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.9. Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.7. Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.3. Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.5. Marine Intertidal - Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.6. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.1. Grassland - Tundra
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.3. Shrubland - Boreal
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
1. Forest -> 1.1. Forest - Boreal
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:Yes
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No

Bibliography [top]

BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

Collar, N. 2015. Bluethroat (Luscinia svecica). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Hagemeijer, E.J.M. and Blair, M.J. 1997. The EBCC atlas of European breeding birds: their distribution and abundance. T. and A. D. Poyser, London.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Jonzén, N.; Lindén, A.; Ergon, T.; Knudsen, E.; Vik, J. O.,;Rubolini, D.; Piacentini, D.; Brinch, C.; Spina, F.; Karlsson, L.; Stervander, M.; Andersson, A.; Waldenström, J.; Lehikoinen, A.; Edvardsen, E.; Solvang, R.; Stenseth, N. C. 2006. Rapid advance of spring arrival dates in long-distance migratory birds. Science 312(5782): 1959-1961.

Rich, T.D., Beardmore, C.J., Berlanga, H., Blancher, P.J., Bradstreet, M.S.W., Butcher, G.S., Demarest, D.W., Dunn, E.H., Hunter, W.C., Inigo-Elias, E.E., Martell, A.M., Panjabi, A.O., Pashley, D.N., Rosenberg, K.V., Rustay, C.M., Wendt, J.S. and Will, T.C. 2004. Partners in flight: North American landbird conservation plan. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY.

Snow, D.W. and Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 2: Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.


Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Cyanecula svecica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22709707A87887151. . Downloaded on 23 May 2017.
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