|Scientific Name:||Vultur gryphus Linnaeus, 1758|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Chebez, J., Pearman, M., Williams, R. & Sharpe, C J|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Capper, D., Clay, R., Mazar Barnett, J., Sharpe, C J & Symes, A.|
This species has a moderately small global population which is suspected to be declining significantly owing to persecution by man. It is consequently classified as Near Threatened.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Vultur gryphus occurs throughout the Andes, in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay south to Argentina and Chile (Houston 1994). It is threatened mostly in the north of its range, and is exceedingly rare in Venezuela and Colombia, where a re-introduction programme using captive-bred individuals is in operation (Hilty and Brown 1986, Houston 1994). A similar project is under way in Argentina (J. C. Chebez in litt. 1999).|
Native:Argentina; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Chile; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is described as uncommon and probably declining. Its population is estimated to number at least 10,000 individuals in total (surely runs into five figures), roughly equivalent to 6,700 mature individuals. Since 2000, declines have continued in Ecuador (c.65 birds in five disjunct populations remain [R. Williams in litt. 2002]), Peru and Bolivia, but it remains numerous and appears to be stable in northern Argentina (M. Pearman in litt. 2003). The largest known population is in north-west Patagonia and comprises an estimated c.300 individuals of which c.200 are adults (Lambertucci 2010). Populations in Venezuela (<30 individuals [Cuesta and Sulbaran 2000], or fewer [Sharpe et al. 2008]) and Colombia may be maintained by reintroduction and feeding, but in Colombia at least the population may still be declining. The status of remaining populations is difficult to determine because its mortality, breeding frequency and success are so poorly known (Houston 1994).|
Trend Justification: A moderately rapid and on-going decline is suspected, owing to levels of persecution by humans.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is found principally over open grassland and alpine regions up to 5,000 m, descending to lowland desert regions in Chile and Peru (Houston 1994, Parker et al. 1996), and over southern-beech forests in Patagonia.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||13.1|
|Movement patterns:||Altitudinal Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||It is clearly adapted for exceptionally low mortality and reproductive output, and is therefore highly vulnerable to human persecution, which persists in parts of its range owing to alleged attacks on livestock (Houston 1994). Increased tourism in parts of Chile and Argentina may have led to a reduction in persecution by demonstrating the ecotourism value of the species (S. Imberti in litt. 2003). The persecution of mountain lions and foxes through the illegal poisoning of carcasses may affect the species in some areas (S. Imberti in litt. 2003). In Argentina Condors are highly dependent on the carcasses of exotic herbivores, which form 98.5% of their diet, making them vulnerable to changes in livestock raising (Lambertucci et al. 2009). Interspecific competition for carcasses with Black Vultures Coragyps atratus, which have recently begun to occupy the same areas, may have a deleterious effect on Andean Condor populations (Carrete et al. 2010).|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I. CMS Appendix II.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Census population based on use of photography/video to recognise individual birds at feeding stations (Ríos-Uzeda and Wallace 2007). Study extent to which species makes large-scale movements. Study potential impact on livestock and begin dialogue with farmers with the aim of reducing persecution.
Carrete, M.; Lambertucci, S. A.; Speziale, K. ; Ceballos, O.; Travaini, A.; Delibes, M.; Hiraldo, F.; Donázar, J. A. 2010. Winners and losers in human-made habitats: interspecific competition outcomes in two Neotropical vultures. Animal Conservation 13: 390–398.
Cuesta, M. R.; Sulbarán, E. A. 2000. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus). In: Reading, R.P.; Miller, B. (ed.), Endangered Animals: a reference guide to conflicting issues, pp. 16-21. Greenwood Press, London.
Ferguson-Lees, J. and Christie, D.A. 2001. Raptors of the world. Christopher Helm, London.
Hilty, S. L.; Brown, W. L. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Houston, D. C. 1994. Cathartidae (New World Vultures). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 24-41. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Lambertucci, S. A. 2010. Size and spatio-temporal variations of the Andean Condor Vultur gryphus population in north-west Patagonia, Argentina: communal roosts and conservation. Oryx 44(3): 441-447.
Lambertucci, S. A.; Trejo, A.; Martino, S. Di; Sánchez-Zapata, J. A.; Donázar, J. A.; Hiraldo, F. 2009. Spatial and temporal patterns in the diet of the Andean Condor: ecological replacement of native fauna by exotic species. Animal Conservation 12: 338-345.
Parker, T.A., Stotz, D.F. and Fitzpatrick, J.W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. In: Stotz, D.F., Fitzpatrick, J.W., Parker, T.A. and Moskovits, D.K. (eds), Neotropical bird ecology and conservation, pp. 113-436. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Ríos-Uzeda, B.; Wallace, R. B. 2007. Estimating the size of the Andean Condor population in the Apolobamba Mountains of Bolivia. Journal of Field Ornithology 78(2): 170-175.
Sharpe, C.J.; Rojas-Suárez, F.; Ascanio, D. 2008. Cóndor Vultur gryphus. In: Rodríguez, J.P. and Rojas-Suárez, F. (eds), Libro Rojo de la fauna Venezolana. Tercera Edición, pp. 128. Provita & Shell Venezuela, S.A., Caracas, Venezuela.
Stotz, D.F., Fitzpatrick, J.W., Parker, T.A. and Moskovits, D.K. 1996. Neotropical Birds: Ecology and Conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Vultur gryphus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22697641A93626700.Downloaded on 23 September 2017.|
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