|Scientific Name:||Neophron percnopterus (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Identification information:||55-65 cm. Wingspan 155-170 cm. Medium-large. Characteristic flight silhouette with broad, well-fingered wings and a wedge-shaped tail. Yellow face and base to the bill with a black tip. Plumage is pale grey with some buff on the head and neck. Primaries and secondaries are black showing contrast with underwing-coverts below and unique white centres above. Juveniles are largely dark brown with contrasting area of pale buff.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2bcde+3bcde ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Abdusalyamov, I., Angelov, I., Aspinall, S., Atienza, J., Baral, H., Barlow, C., Barov, B., Belyalova, L., Bowden, C., Brunner, A., Buketov, M., Bukreev, S., Bustamov, E., Camina, A., Cortes, J., Cortés-Avizanda, A., Cuthbert, R., Efimenko, N., Eriksen, J., Fundukchiev, S., Galushin, V., Goodwin, W., Grande, J., Grubac, B., Hatzofe, O., Isfendiyaroglu, S., Kashkarov, R., Katzner, T., Keuzberg-Makhina, E., Khan, A., Khrokov, V., Kolbintzev, V., Koshkin, A., Kovshar, A., Lanovenko, E., Madroño, A., Matekova, G., Mischenko, A., Mitropolskyi, M., Mitropolskyi, O., Monteiro, A., Mulholland, G., Petkov, N., Pomeroy, D., Porter, R., Rahmani, A., Simmons, R., Sklyarenko, S., Soldatova, N., Stoynov, E., Subramanya, S., Tewes, E., Thiollay, J., Velevski, M., Wolstencroft, J., Oppel, S. & Ibrahim, H.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Bird, J., Butchart, S., Derhé, M., Khwaja, N., Pople, R., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Westrip, J., Wheatley, H.|
This long-lived species qualifies as Endangered owing to a recent and extremely rapid population decline in India (presumably resulting from poisoning by the veterinary drug diclofenac) combined with severe long-term declines in Europe (>50% over the last three generations [42 years]) and West Africa, plus continuing declines through much of the rest of its African range.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species occupies a large range with isolated resident populations in the Cape Verde and Canary Islands in the west (although they may still have some connectivity to the continental population [Agudo et al. 2011]), through Morocco (Amezian and Khamlichi 2015) and parts of West Africa (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001). A small resident population persists in Angola and Namibia. The bulk of the resident population occurs in Ethiopia and East Africa, Arabia and the Indian Subcontinent, while Saharan and Sahelian parts of Africa in Algeria, Niger, northernmost Cameroon, Chad and northern Sudan also hold significant but presumably smaller populations (I. Angelov in litt. 2012). Migratory birds breed in northernmost Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt), southern Europe, from Spain in the west, through the Mediterranean, Turkey, the Caucasus and central Asia to northern Iran, Pakistan, northern India and Nepal. These birds winter within the resident range, and in addition throughout the Sahel region of Africa. Global population estimates for the species are crude, but 3,000-4,700 pairs are estimated in Europe (BirdLife International 2015), <2,000 pairs in central Asia, just a few thousand pairs now in the Indian Subcontinent, perhaps 1,000 pairs in the Middle East, and perhaps 1,000-2,000 pairs in Africa (Thiollay 1989, I. Angelov in litt. 2012). The population size in Europe is estimated to have decreased by 50-79% in 53.4 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015). In Spain, which with c.1,300 pairs may support as much as 40% of the European breeding population, the number of territories declined by at least 25% between 1987-2000 (i.e. equating to a decline of >50% over three generations) (Donázar 2004, Del Moral 2009), likely due to high mortality rates (Cortés-Avizanda et al. 2009). The Spanish population was estimated to be stable for the period 1998-2011 (BirdLife International 2015, Tauler et al. 2015), and the adjacent French population appears to be increasing (Lieury et al. 2015), although 2015 appeared to be a bad year there (Vulture Conservation Foundation 2016). Balkan populations are however still declining at 4-8% per year, with the population in Greece having declined by 44-60% over 30 years (Xirouchakis and Tsiakiris 2009, Grubač et al. 2014, Velevski et al. 2015). Declines are reported from the Middle East (S. Aspinall in litt. 2005), e.g. 50-75% in Israel, however in Oman the population appears stable or increasing (J. Eriksen in litt. 2005, Angelov et al. 2013b, Al Bulushi et al. 2013), although this may be more a reflection of count methods rather than genuine stability in the population. Around 1,900 birds are resident in a stable population on the island of Socotra (Porter and Suleiman 2012). The resident populations within Africa have declined by 5.9% per year over the past 29-36 years (Ogada et al. 2016), including those in Ethiopia and Djibouti (G. Mulholland in litt. 2006, Arkumarev et al. 2014), Kenya (Virani et al. 2011), and Angola and Namibia (where just 10 pairs remain) (R. Simmons in litt. 2006). Across much of Africa residents are outnumbered by migrant European and probably Asian breeders (J. M. Thiollay in litt. 2006, I. Angelov in litt. 2012). The species has gone Extinct in the region of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland (Taylor et al. 2015), and is Extinct as a breeding species in Namibia (Simmons 2015). Most critically, the species has undergone a catastrophic decline (>35% per year) since 1999 in India, where numbers detected on road transects declined by 68% between 2000 and 2003 (Cuthbert et al. 2006), but the recent ban on Diclofenac may have arrested the decline of the Indian population (Galligan et al. 2014).|
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Angola; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Benin; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Chad; Cyprus; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; France; Georgia; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Guinea; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lebanon; Libya; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Morocco; Namibia; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Portugal; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia - Vagrant, European Russia); Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Somalia; South Sudan; Spain (Canary Is.); Sudan; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Western Sahara; Yemen
Possibly extinct:Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Moldova; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Ukraine
Regionally extinct:South Africa
Vagrant:Austria; Bangladesh; Belgium; Botswana; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; Gambia; Hungary; Mongolia; Mozambique; Myanmar; Norway; Poland; Qatar; Slovakia; Slovenia; Sri Lanka; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Sweden; Switzerland; United Kingdom; Zimbabwe
Present - origin uncertain:China; Côte d'Ivoire; Guinea-Bissau; Uganda
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 3,000-4,700 breeding pairs, equating to 6,000-9,400 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 18,000-57,000 individuals, roughly equivalent to 12,000-38,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.|
Trend Justification: The species is declining in virtually all parts of its range, apparently for a number of different reasons. In India, it has declined by >90% in the last decade; European populations have declined by 50-79% over the last three generations. Western, eastern and southern African populations also appear to have declined significantly, as do Arabian populations (Jennings 2010).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Typically nests on ledges or in caves on cliffs (Sarà and Di Vittorio 2003), crags and rocky outcrops, but occasionally also in large trees, buildings (mainly in India), electricity pylons (Naoroji 2006) and exceptionally on the ground (Gangoso and Palacios 2005). Forages in lowland and montane regions over open, often arid, country. Also scavenges at human settlements. Broad diet including carrion, tortoises, organic waste, insects, young vertebrates, eggs and even faeces (Margalida et al. 2012, Dobrev et al. 2015, 2016). Usually solitary, but will congregate at feeding sites, such as rubbish tips, or vulture restaurants (i.e. supplementary feeding stations), and forms roosts of non-breeding birds (Ceballos & Donázar 1990). Performs an energetic display flight with mate. Several resident island populations show genetic isolation. Northern breeders conduct long-distance intercontinental migrations, flying over land and often utilising the narrowest part of the Strait of Gibraltar or the Bosphorus and Dardanelles on their way to Africa (García-Ripollés et al. 2010, López-López et al. 2014, Oppel et al. 2015). The species exhibits high site fidelity, particularly in males (Elorriaga et al. 2009, García-Ripollés et al. 2010, López-López et al. 2014).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||14|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
This species faces a number of threats across its range. Disturbance, lead poisoning (from ammunition used in hunting game), direct and secondary poisoning, electrocution (by powerlines), collisions with wind turbines, reduced food availability and habitat change are currently impacting upon European populations (Donázar et al. 2002, N. Petkov in litt. 2005, Kurtev et al. 2008, Zuberogoitia et al. 2008, Carrete et al. 2009, Dzhamirzoev and Bukreev 2009, Sara et al. 2009, Angelov et al. 2013a, Mateo-Tomás and Olea 2015, Velevski et al. 2015, Donázar et al. 2016), with juveniles showing higher declines (Clouet et al. 2014) and mainland populations showing higher rates of juvenile mortality than island populations (Sanz-Aguilar et al. 2015a). Illegal poisoning against carnivores seems to be the main threat operating on the breeding grounds in Spain (Hernandez and Margalida 2009, Sanz-Aguillar et al. 2015b) and the Balkans (I. Angelov in. litt. 2012, Oppell et al. 2016). Declines in parts of Africa are likely to have been driven by loss of wild ungulate populations and, in some areas, overgrazing by livestock and improvements in slaughterhouse sanitation (Mundy et al. 1992, Ogada et al. 2016). Within the European Union, regulations introduced in 2002, controlling the disposal of animal carcasses, greatly reduced food availability, notably through the closure of traditional "muladares" in Spain and Portugal (Donázar 2004, J. C. Atienza in litt. 2007, Donázar et al. 2009, Cortés-Avizanda et al. 2010, Donázar et al. 2010a, Cortés-Avizanda 2011, Cortés-Avizanda et al. 2016). However, recently passed regulations will permit the operation of feeding stations for scavengers and guidelines about how to operate them exist (Cortés-Avizanda et al. 2010, A. Brunner in litt. 2010), and in eastern Europe dietary diversity has no effect on population sizes, but instead could affect territory size (Dobrev et al. 2016). Poisoning is a threat to the species, often through the use of poison baits targeted at terrestrial predators (Carrete et al. 2007, Carrete et al. 2009, Cortés-Avizanda et al. 2009, 2015 Sanz-Aguilar et al. 2015b, Oppel et al. 2016), and through the consumption of poisoned animals. Recent analyses from many countries including Bulgaria (Angelov 2009) have highlighted potential contamination of Egyptian Vultures that may lead to increased mortality. Antibiotic residues present in the carcasses of intensively-farmed livestock may increase the susceptibility of nestlings to disease (e.g. avian pox has been reported as a cause of mortality in Bulgaria [Kurtev et al. 2008]).
It appears that diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) often used for livestock, and which is fatal to Gyps spp. when ingested at livestock carcasses (BirdLife International news [www.birdlife.org/news] 2007), is driving the recent rapid declines in India (Cuthbert et al. 2006, A. Rahmani in litt. 2012, Galligan et al. 2014). NSAIDs are reportedly toxic to raptors, storks, cranes and owls, suggesting that vultures of other genera could be susceptible to its effects (BirdLife International news [www.birdlife.org/news] 2007). It seems plausible that this species previously had less exposure to the toxin owing to competitive exclusion from carcasses by Gyps spp. vultures (Cuthbert et al. 2006). In 2007, diclofenac was found to be on sale at a veterinary practice in Tanzania (BirdLife International news [www.birdlife.org/news] 2007). In addition, it was reported that in Tanzania, a Brazilian manufacturer has been aggressively marketing the drug for veterinary purposes (C. Bowden in litt. 2007) and exporting it to 15 African countries (BirdLife International news [www.birdlife.org/news] 2007). This drug has recently been approved for veterinary use in Europe, and is commercially available in France and Spain, which is a major concern for the species (Margalida et al. 2014). Mortality at power lines has been found to be particularly common on the Canary Islands (Donazar et al. 2002, Donazar et al. 2007a) and potentially risky in other regions of Spain (Donazar et al. 2007b, 2010b) and in Africa (Nikolaus 1984, 2006), with 17 individuals found killed by electrocution in Port Sudan, over 10 days in 2010 (I. Angelov in litt. 2010, Angelov et al. 2013a), indicating a potentially serious problem that has persisted for decades and will continue to contribute to Egyptian Vulture population declines. In Morocco at least, the species is taken for use in traditional medicine, and it (like all African vultures) may have local commercial value as a traditional medicine throughout Africa (W. Goodwin in litt. 2016). Competition for suitable nest sites with Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) may reduce breeding success in the short-term (Kurtev et al. 2008).
Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix I and II. Occurs within a number of protected areas across its range. Monitoring programmes, supplementary feeding (Cortés-Avizanda et al. 2010) and campaigns against illegal use of poisons, including awareness-raising, are in place for a number of national populations (Tauler et al. 2015, Lieury et al. 2015, Oppel et al. 2016). The veterinary drug diclofenac has now been banned by the Indian government. In 2007, a survey began to establish the extent of diclofenac use for veterinary purposes in Tanzania (BirdLife International news [www.birdlife.org/news] 2007). Due to the recent legalisation of diclofenac for veterinary use in the EU, there is an active campaign against the use of diclofenac in the European Union (http://www.birdlife.org/europe-and-central-asia/project/ban-veterinary-diclofenac). An International species action plan for the species was published in 2008 (Iñigo et al. 2008). National species action plans are in place in France, Bulgaria and Italy, and the species is included in the Balkan Vulture Action Plan (BVAP). Efforts are being taken to release captive-bred individuals in parts of Italy. In Spain, France, Italy, Bulgaria and Macedonia birds have been fitted with satellite-tags to study juvenile dispersion, migratory movements and wintering areas (e.g. García-Ripollés et al. 2010, López-López et al. 2014, Oppell et al. 2015). Nest guarding schemes for pairs that are most threatened by poachers have been implemented in Italy and Bulgaria, where very small populations survive (Zuberogoitia et al. 2014, Oppel et al 2016). Expeditions to study the limiting factors in the wintering areas and along the migration flyway have taken place together with local organizations in Mauritania, Senegal, Ethiopia, Sudan and Turkey (Arkumarev et al. 2014, Oppel et al. 2014). A training seminar was held in Ethiopia to help build capacity for conservation of the species on its African wintering grounds (Bulgarian Society for the Protection of Birds 2013). A multi-species action plan for African-Eurasian vultures is underway, and an international Flyway Action Plan for the Central Asian and Balkan populations was initiated in 2015 in Bulgaria, encompassing the Balkans, Central Asia, Middle East, and East Africa (S. Oppell in litt. 2016). It is considered critically endangered in Uganda (WCS 2016).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Start and maintain intensive cooperation with local stakeholders to ensure poison- and poaching-free zones at sites with high densities or congregations of the species throughout the breeding, migration and wintering range, alongside similar efforts for other threatened species. Build capacity in countries along the migration flyways and in the wintering areas. Protect nest sites where persecution is a problem. Research the causes and extent of current declines across the species's range. Insulate dangerous electricity pylons in areas where high mortality is recorded. Coordinate monitoring to assess trends throughout the range. Relax the European Union sanitary regulations in relation to carcass disposal. Establish supplementary feeding sites based on rigorous scientific knowledge and under adaptive and appropriate management (Moreon-Opo et al. 2015, Cortés-Avizanda et al. 2016). Raise awareness amongst pastoralists of the dangers of using diclofenac for livestock (BirdLife International news [www.birdlife.org/news] 2007). Effectively reduce risks of poisoning through strict enforcement of poison-bait ban and education. Lobby for the banning of diclofenac for veterinary purposes throughout the species's range, and support the enforcement of this ban where it has been adopted. Where applicable, establish the impact of wind turbines, and lobby for effective impact assessments to be carried out prior to their construction. Where appropriate, guard nests to reduce disturbance. Confiscate illegally kept live birds and use them for the purposes of captive breeding and future restocking and reintroduction programmes. In key areas of the species's range, implement long-term and large-scale education and community involvement programmes.
|Amended reason:||This amended version of the 2016 assessment was created to include edits to the distribution map, and to update the extent of occurrence (EOO).|
Agudo, R.; Rico, C.; Hiraldo, F.; Donázar, J. A. 2011. Evidence of connectivity between continental and differentiated insular populations in a highly mobile species. Div. Distrib. 17: 1-12.
Al Bulushi, A.; Al Harthu, S.; Al Farsi, G.; Al Araimi, J.; Al Humaidi, J. 2013. Apparent increases in Egyptian vulture populations in the Sultanate of Oman. Phoenix 29: 15-16.
Amezian, M.; Khamlichi, R. E. 2015. Significant population of Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus found in Morocco. Ostrich 87: 1-4.
Angelov, I. 2009. Egyptian Vultures Neophron percnopterus exposed to toxic substances. BirdLife Europe e-News 3(2): 7.
Angelov, I., Hashim, I. and Oppel, S. 2013a. Persistent electrocution mortality of Egyptian Vultures Neophron percnopterus over 28 years in East Africa. Bird Conservation International 23: 1-6.
Angelov, I.; Yotzova, T.; Sarrouf, M.; McGrady, M. 2013b. Large increase of the Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus population on Masirah island, Oman. Sandgrouse 35: 140-152.
Arkumarev, V.; Dobrev, V.; Abebe, Y. D.; Popgeorgiev, G.; Nikolov, S. C. 2104. Congregations of wintering Egyptian Vultures Neophron percnopterus in Afar, Ethiopia: present status and implications for conservation. Ostrich 85: 139-145.
BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
BirdLife International. 2008. Drugs firms told to do more to prevent vulture extinctions. Available at: #http://www.birdlife.org/news/news/2008/08/indian_drug_announcemment.html#.
BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
Bulgarian Society for the Protection of Birds. 2013. Technical Report for the Implementation of a Training Seminar in Ethiopia 9-19.01.2013.
Carrete, M., Grande, J.M., Tella, J.L., Sánchez-Zapata, J.A., Donazar, J.A., Díaz-Delgado R. and Romo, A. 2007. Habitat, human pressure, and social behavior: Partialling out factors affecting large-scale territory extinction in an endangered vulture. Biological Conservation 136(1): 143-154.
Carrete, M.; Sánchez-Zapata, J. A.; Benítez, J. R.; Lobón, M.; Donázar, J. A. 2009. Large-scale risk-assessment of wind-farms on population viability of a globally-endangered long-lived raptor. Biological Conservation 142: 2954-2961.
Ceballos, O.; Donázar, J. A. 1990. Roost-tree characteristics, food habits and seasonal abundance of roosting Egyptian Vultures in northern Spain. Journal of Raptor Research 24: 19-25.
Clouet, M.; Rebours, I.; Gonzalez, L.; Kobierzycki, É.; Etchbarne, J. B. 2014. Observation des dortoirs de vautours percnoptères Neophron percnopterus au Pays Basque au cours de l'année 2013. Alauda 82: 27-30.
Cortés-Avizanda, A. 2011. Ecological effects of spatial heterogeneity and predictability in the distribution of resources: individuals, populations and guild of scavengers. PhD Thesis, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
Cortés-Avizanda, A.; Blanco, G.; DeVault, T. L.; Markandya, A.; Virani, M. Z.; Brandt, J.; Donázar, J. A. 2016. Supplementary feeding and endangered species: benefits, caveats and controversies. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 14: 191-199.
Cortés-Avizanda, A., Carrete, M. and Donázar, J.A. 2010. Managing supplementary feeding for avian scavengers: guidelines for optimal design using ecological criteria. Biological Conservation 143: 1707-1715.
Cortés-Avizanda, A.; Ceballos, O.; Donázar, J. A. 2009. Long-term trends in population size and breeding success in the Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) in northern Spain. Journal of Raptor Research 43(1): 43-49.
Cortés-Avizanda, A.; Colomer, M. A.; Margalida, A.; Ceballos,O.; Donázar, J. A. 2015. Modeling the consequences of the demise and potential recovery of a keystone-species: wild rabbits and avian scavengers in Mediterranean landscapes. Scientific Reports 5: 17033.
Cuthbert, R.; Green, R.E.; Ranade, S.; Saravanan, S.; Pain, D.J.; Prakash, V.; Cunningham, A. A. 2006. Rapid population declines of Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) and Red-headed Vulture (Sarcogyps calvus) in India. Animal Conservation 9(3): 349-354.
Del Moral, J.C. (Ed.). 2009. El alimoche común en España. Población reproductora en 2008 y método de censo. SEO/Birdlife, Madrid.
Dobrev, V.; Boev, Z.; Arkumarev, V.; Dobrev, D.; Kret, E.; Saravia, V.; Bounas, A.; Vavylis, D.; Nikolov, S. C.; Oppel, S. 2016. Diet is not related to productivity but to territory occupancy in a declining population of Egyptian Vultures Neophron percnopterus. Bird Conservation International (in press).
Dobrev, V.; Boev, Z.; Oppel, S.; Arkumarev, V.; Dobrev, D.; Kret, E.; Vavylis, D.; Saravia, V.; Bounas, A.; Nikolov, S. C. 2015. Diet of the Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) in Bulgaria and Greece (2005-2013). Technical report under action A5 of the LIFE+ project “The Return of the Neophron” (LIFE10 NAT/BG/000152). BSPB.
Donázar, J. A. 2004. Alimoche Común Neophron percnopterus. In: Madroño, A., González, C., Atienza, J.C. (ed.), Libro Rojo de las Aves de España, pp. 129-131. Dirección General para la Biodiversidad & SEO/BirdLife, Madrid.
Donázar J.A., Benítez, J.A. 2007b. La industria eólica, otra amenaza para el alimoche en el sur de Cádiz. Quercus 226: 68-69.
Donázar, J.A., Cortés-Avizanda, A., Carrete, M. 2010a. Dietary shifts in two vultures after the demise of supplementary feeding stations: consequences of the EU sanitary legislation. European Journal of Wildlife Research 56: 613-621.
Donázar, J. A.; Cortés-Avizanda, A.; Fargallo, J. A.; Margalida, A.; Moleón, M.; Morales-Reyes, Z.; Moreno-Opo, R.; Pérez-García, J. M.; Sánchez-Zapata, J. A.; Zuberogoitia, I.; Serrano, D. 2016. Roles of raptors in a changing world: from flagships to providers of key ecosystem services . Ardeola 63: 181-234.
Donázar, J. A.; Margalida, A.; Campión, D. 2009. Vultures, feeding stations and sanitary legislation: a conflict and its consequences from the perpective of conservation biology. Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi, San Sebastian, Spain.
Donazar, J.A., Palacios, C.J., Gangoso, L., Ceballos, O., Gonzalez, M.J. and Hiraldo, F. 2007a. Conservation status and limiting factors in the endangered population of Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) in the Canary Islands. Biological Conservation 107(1): 89-97.
Donázar, J. A.; Palacios, C. J.; Gangoso, L.; Ceballos, O.; González, M. J.; Hiraldo, F. 2002. Conservation status and limiting factors in the endangered population of Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) in the Canary Islands. Biological Conservation 107: 89-97.
Donázar, J.A., Serrano, D. y Urmeneta, A. 2010b. Amenaza eólica sobre las aves rapaces de bardenas reales. Quercus 296(60-61).
Dzhamirzoev, G. S.; Bukreev, S. A. 2009. Status of Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus in the North Caucasus, Russian Federation. Sandgrouse 31(2): 128-133.
Elorriaga, J.; Zuberogoitia, I.; Castillo, I.; Azkona, A.; Hidalgo, S.; Astorkia, L.; Ruiz-Moneo, F.; Iraeta, A. 2009. First documented case of long-distance dispersal in the Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus). Journal of Raptor Research 43(2): 142-145.
Ferguson-Lees, J. and Christie, D.A. 2001. Raptors of the world. Christopher Helm, London.
Galligan, T.H., Amano, T., Prakash, V.M., Kulkarni, M., Shringarpure, R., Prakash, N., Ranade, S., Green, R.E. and Cuthbert, R.J. 2014. Have population declines in Egyptian Vulture and Red-headed Vulture in India slowed since the 2006 ban on veterinary diclofenac? Bird Conservation International: 1-10.
Gangoso, L., Palacios, C.-J. 2005. Ground nesting by Egyptian Vultures (Neophron percnopterus) in the Canary Islands. Journal of Raptor Research 39: 186-187.
García-Ripollés, C.; López-López, P.; Urios, V. 2010. First description of migration and wintering of adult Egyptian Vultures Neophron percnopterus tracked by GPS satellite telemetry. Bird Study 57(2): 261-265.
Grubač, B.; Velevski, M.; Avukatov, V. 2014. Long-term population decrease and recent breeding performance of the Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus in Macedonia. North-West. J. Zool. 10: 25-32.
Hernández, A. E., and Margalida, A. 2009. Poison-related mortality effects in the endangered Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) population in Spain. European Journal of Wildlife Research 55: 415-423.
Iñigo A., Barov B., Orhun C., Gallo-Orsi U. 2008. Action plan for the Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus in the European Union. BirdLife International for the European Commission.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).
Jennings, M. C. 2010. Atlas of the breeding birds of Arabia. Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Frankfurt am Main, Germany and Riyadh.
Kurtev, M.; Iankov, P.; Angelov, I. 2005. National Action plan for Conservation of the Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) in Bulgaria.
Lieury, N.; Gallardo, M.; Ponchon, C.; Besnard, A.; Millon, A. 2015. Relative contribution of local demography and immigration in the recovery of a geographically-isolated population of the endangered Egyptian vulture. Biol. Conserv. 191: 349-356.
López-López, P.; García-Ripollés, C.; Urios, V. 2014. Individual repeatability in timing and spatial flexibility of migration routes of trans-Saharan migratory raptors. Curr. Zool. 60: 642-652.
Margalida, A.; Benitez, J. R.; Sanchez-Zapata, J. A.; Ávila, E.; Arenas, R.; Donázar, J. A. 2012. Long-term relationship between diet breadth and breeding success in a declining population of Egyptian Vultures Neophron percnopterus. Ibis 154: 184-188.
Margalida, A.; Bogliani, G.; Bowden, C. G. R.; Donázar, J. A.; Genero, F.; Gilbert, M.; Karesh, W. B.; Kock, R.; Lubroth, J.; Manteca, X.; Naidoo, V.; Neimanis, A.; Sánchez-Zapata, J. A.; Taggart, M. A.; Vaarten, J.; Yon, L.; Kuiken, T.; Green, R. E. 2014. One health approach to use of veterinary pharmaceuticals. Science 346: 1296-1298.
Mateo-Tomás, P.; Olea, P. P. 2015. Livestock-driven land use change to model species distributions: Egyptian vulture as a case study. Ecol. Indicators 57: 331-340.
Moreno-Opo, R.; Trujillano, A.; Arredondo, Á.; González, L. M.; Margalida, A. 2015. Manipulating size, amount and appearance of food inputs to optimize supplementary feeding programs for European vultures. Biol. Conserv. 181: 27-35.
Mundy, P.; Butchart, D.; Ledger, J.; Piper, S. 1992. The vultures of Africa. Academic Press, London.
Naoroji, R. 2006. Birds of prey of the Indian subcontinent. Christopher Helm, London.
Nikolaus, G. 1984. Large numbers of birds killed by electric power line. Scopus 8(42).
Nikolaus, G. 2006. Commentary: where have the African vultures gone? Vulture News: 65-67.
Ogada, D., Shaw, P., Beyers, R.L., Buij, R., Murn, C., Thiollay, J.M., Beale, C.M., Holdo, R.M., Pomeroy, D., Baker, N., Krüger, S.C., Botha, A., Virani, M.Z., Monadjem, A. and Sinclair, A.R.E. 2016. Another Continental Vulture Crisis: Africa’s Vultures Collapsing toward Extinction. Conservation Letters 9: 89-97.
Oppel, S.; Dobrev, V.; Arkumarev, V.; Saravia, V.; Bounas, A.; Kret, E.; Skartsi, T.; Velevski, M.; Stoychev, S.; Nikolov, S. C. 2016. Assessing the effectiveness of intensive conservation actions: Does guarding and feeding increase productivity and survival of Egyptian Vultures in the Balkans? Biol. Conserv. 198: 157-164.
Oppel, S.; Dobrev, V.; Arkumarev, V.; Saravia, V.; Bounas, A.; Kret, E.; Velevski, M.; Stoychev, S.; Nikolov, S. C. 2015. High juvenile mortality during migration in a declining population of a long-distance migratory raptor. Ibis 157: 545-557.
Oppel, S.; Iankov, P.; Mumun, S.; Gerdzhikov, G.; Iliev, M.; Isfendiyaroglu, S.; Yeniyurt, C.; Tabur, E. 2014. Identification of the best sites around the gulf of Iskenderun, Turkey, for monitoring the autumn migration of Egyptian Vultures and other diurnal raptors. Sandgrouse 36: 240-249.
Porter, R. F. and Suleiman, A. S. 2012. the Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus on socotra, yemen: population, ecology, conservation and ethno-ornithology. Sandgrouse 34: 44-62.
Sanz-Aguilar, A.; De Pablo, F.; Donázar, J. A. 2015a. Age-dependent survival of island vs. mainland populations of two avian scavengers: delving into migration costs. Oecologia 179: 405-414.
Sanz-Aguilar, A.; Sánchez-Zapata, J. A.; Carrete, M.; Benítez, J. R.; Ávila, E.; Arenas, R.; Donázar, J. A. 2015b. Action on multiple fronts, illegal poisoning and wind farm planning, is required to reverse the decline of the Egyptian vulture in southern Spain. Bio. Conserv. 187: 10-18.
Sarà, M.; Di Vittorio, M. 2003. Factors influencing the distribution, abundance and nest-site selection of an endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) population in Sicily. Animal Conservation 6(4): 317-328.
Sara, M.; Grenci, S.; Di Vittorio, M. 2009. Status of Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) in Sicily. Journal of Raptor Research 43(1): 66-69.
Simmons, R. E. 2015. Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus. In: Simmons, R. E.; Brown, C. J.; Kemper, J. (ed.), Birds to watch in Namibia: red, rare and endemic species, pp. 98-99. Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Namibia Nature Foundation.
Tauler, H.; Real, J.; Hernandez-Matias, A.; Aymerich, P.; Baucells, J.; Martorell, C.; Santandreu, J. 2015. Identifying key demographic parameters for the viability of a growing population of the endangered Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus. Bird Conservation International First View: 1-14.
Taylor. M. R.; Peacock, F.; Wanless, R. M. 2015. The 2015 Eskom Red Data Book of Birds of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Thiollay, J. -M. 1989. Distribution and ecology of Palearctic birds of prey wintering in West and central Africa. In: Meyburg, B.-U.; Chancellor, R.D. (ed.), Raptors in the modern World: proceedings of the III World conference on birds of prey and owls. Eilat, Israel 22-27 March 1987, pp. 95-109. World Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls, Berlin and London.
Velevski, M.; Nikolov, S. C.; Hallmann, B.; Dobrev, V.; Sidiropoulos, L.; Saravia, V.; Tsiakiris, R.; Arkumarev, V.; Galanaki, A.; Kominos, T.; Stara, K.; Kret, E.; Grubač, B.; Lisičanec, E.; Kastritis, T.; Vavylis, D.; Topi, M.; Hoxha, B.; Oppel, S. 2015. Population decline and range contraction of the Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus on the Balkan Peninsula. Bird Conservation International 25: 440-450.
Virani, M.; Kendall, C.; Njoroge, P.; Thomsett, S. 2011. Major declines in the abundance of vultures and other scavenging raptors in and around the Masai Mara ecosystem, Kenya. Biological Conservation 144: 746-752.
Vulture Conservation Foundation. 2016. The Egyptian vulture in France: 88 pairs, but a very bad breeding year. Available at: http://www.4vultures.org/2016/03/22/the-egyptian-vulture-in-france-88-pairs-but-a-very-bad-breeding-year/.
WCS. 2016. Nationally Threatened Species for Uganda.
Xirouchakis, S. M.; Tsiakiris, R. 2009. Status and population trends of vultures in Greece. Munibe suppl. 29: 155-171.
Zuberogoitia, I.; Zabala, J.; Martínez, J. A.; Martínez, J. E.; Azkona, A. 2008. Effect of human activities on Egyptian Vulture breeding. Animal Conservation 11(4): 313-320.
Zuberogoitia, I.; Zabala, J.; Martínez, J. E.; González-Oreja, J. A.; López-López, P. 2014. Effective conservation measures to mitigate the impact of human disturbances on the endangered Egyptian vulture. Anim. Conserv. 17: 410-418.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2017. Neophron percnopterus (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22695180A118600142.Downloaded on 23 March 2018.|