|Scientific Name:||Sterna striata Gmelin, 1789|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Butchart, S., Calvert, R. & Ekstrom, J.|
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be declining, but is not currently thought to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The White-fronted Tern is native to south-west Australasia, breeding on the North and South Island of New Zealand, Stewart Island, the Chatham, Auckland and Snares Islands off the coast of New Zealand, and Flinders and Cape Barren Island off the north-east of Tasmania. It is also a winter visitor to Australia, from south Queensland to Tasmania and west to South Australia.|
Native:Australia; New Zealand
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The global population is very unlikely to exceed 50,000 individuals, and may be considerably less; OSNZ survey results from the 1990s suggest a total population of 12,000-15,000 pairs (C. Gaskin and G. Taylor in litt. 2012) therefore estimated 24,000-30,000 mature individuals here. The previous estimate of 1,500,000 is considered to be a vast overestimate (C. Gaskin and G. Taylor in litt. 2012).
Trend Justification: The species is suspected to be declining (C. Gaskin and G. Taylor in litt. 2012), but the rate of decline has not been estimated.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species can be found in coastal areas, nesting on rocky or sandy beaches and shingle islands in rivers, also on coastal cliffs and deserted barges, often close to the surf. It feeds along the shore and in bays, and over oceanic waters in winter. It feeds almost exclusively on fish but will also take shrimp, feeding in the surf zone or several kilometres out to sea. It often feeds in flocks, plunge-diving from 7-10 metres with or without hovering. It also feeds but contact-dipping, and is frequently victimised by skuas. It lays from October to December with most colonies containing 100-500 pairs, although solitary pairs are recorded at the edges of its range (del Hoyo et al. 1996).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||10.1|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
Delany, S. and Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., and Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Sterna striata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22694607A93459148.Downloaded on 19 July 2018.|
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