|Scientific Name:||Charadrius hiaticula Linnaeus, 1758|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Malpas, L.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; British Indian Ocean Territory; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Chad; Comoros; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Egypt; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Gabon; Gambia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Guam; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Hungary; Iceland; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Madagascar; Malawi; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mayotte; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Netherlands; Niger; Nigeria; Northern Mariana Islands; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Réunion; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Swaziland; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States; Western Sahara; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Vagrant:Australia; Bangladesh; Barbados; Brunei Darussalam; China; Hong Kong; Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Lesotho; Liechtenstein; Malaysia; Mongolia; Myanmar; New Zealand; Philippines; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Singapore; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Trinidad and Tobago
Present - origin uncertain:Micronesia, Federated States of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated to number c.415,000-1,400,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). National population sizes have been estimated at < c.1,000 individuals on migration and < c.1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 140,000-213,000 pairs, which equates to 280,000-426,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).|
Trend Justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have fluctuating trends (Wetlands International 2015). At the European level the population is unknown however at the EU level the population trend is decreasing (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Behaviour The majority of this species is fully migratory (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Hockey et al. 2005) and travels either on a broad or narrow front depending on the location of each population's breeding and wintering grounds (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species starts to breed from April until June, nesting in solitary pairs or loose semi-colonial groups (especially in undisturbed areas) (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It is a gregarious species (Hayman et al. 1986) and often roosts communally in flocks of several hundred close to its feeding areas (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996), occurring singly, in small (up to 50 individuals) or large flocks (up to 1,200-1,500 individuals) during the non-breeding season (Urban et al. 1986). Habitat Breeding The species breeds primarily on sand or shingle beaches either along the Arctic coast (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998) or around coastal tundra pools or lakes (Johnsgard 1981). In the south of its range it may also breed inland on the Arctic tundra (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996) on muddy plains with stones or pebbles (Johnsgard 1981), on shores and sandbars of inland rivers, lakes, gravel pits or reservoirs (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998), or on short grassland, farmland (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998) and other well-drained sites (Snow and Perrins 1998). Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season the species inhabits muddy, sandy or pebbly coasts in the tropics and subtropics (Johnsgard 1981) including estuaries (del Hoyo et al. 1996), tidal mudflats, sandflats and exposed coral reefs (Urban et al. 1986). It also frequents mudbanks or sandbanks along rivers and lakes (Urban et al. 1986), lagoons, saltmarshes, short grassland, farmland, flooded fields, gravel pits, reservoirs (del Hoyo et al. 1996), sewage works and saltpans during this season (Hockey et al. 2005). Diet Its diet consists of small crustaceans, molluscs, polycheate worms, isopods, amphipods, insects (e.g. ants, beetles, flies and fly larvae) and millipedes (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a shallow scrape (del Hoyo et al. 1996) positioned near the high-water mark on shingle or sandy beaches (Johnsgard 1981, Hayman et al. 1986). The species is a solitary nester although it may breed at quite high densities in undisturbed areas, neighbouring nests spaced between 5 and 100 m apart (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Management information Removing feral American mink Neovison vison from a large archipelago with many small islands in the Baltic Sea resulted in an increase in the breeding density of this species in the area (Nordstrom et al. 2003).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||5.1|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||Important migratory stop-over habitats for this species on the Baltic Sea coastline are threatened by petroleum pollution, wetland drainage for irrigation, land abandonment and changing land management practices leading to scrub overgrowth (Grishanov et al. 2006). The species is also susceptible to avian botulism (so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the disease) (Blaker 1967), and suffers predation from feral America mink Neovison vison in some regions (Nordstrom et al. 2003).|
Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed on Annex II of the Bern Convention.
Conservation Actions Proposed
The following information refers to the species's European range only: Removing feral American Mink (Neovison vison) from a large archipelago with many small islands in the Baltic Sea resulted in an increase in the breeding density of this species in the area (Nordström et al. 2003). Pollution of wetland habitats, wetland drainage for irrigation, land abandonment and changing land management practices at breeding sites needs to be stopped.
BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
Blaker, D. 1967. An outbreak of Botulinus poisoning among waterbirds. Ostrich 38(2): 144-147.
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.
Delany, S. and Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., and Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Hayman, P.; Marchant, J.; Prater, A. J. 1986. Shorebirds. Croom Helm, London.
Hockey, P.A.R., Dean, W.R.J. and Ryan, P.G. 2005. Roberts birds of southern Africa. Trustees of the John Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town, South Africa.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers and snipes of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, U.S.A. and London.
Nordström, M.; Högmander, J.; Nummelin, J.; Laine, J.; Laanetu, N.; Korpimäki, E. 2003. Effects of feral mink removal on seabirds, waders and passerines on small islands in the Baltic Sea. Biological Conservation 109: 359-368.
Snow, D.W. and Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Urban, E.K., Fry, C.H. and Keith, S. 1986. The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London.
Vähätalo, A. V.; Rainio, K.; Lehikoinen, A.; Lehikoinen, E. 2004. Spring arrival of birds depends on the North Atlantic Oscillation. Journal of Avian Biology 35: 210-216.
Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: wpe.wetlands.org. (Accessed: 17/09/2015).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Charadrius hiaticula. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22693759A86575756.Downloaded on 23 February 2018.|
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