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Arenaria interpres 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Charadriiformes Scolopacidae

Scientific Name: Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Ruddy Turnstone, Turnstone
French Tournepierre à collier
Taxonomic Source(s): Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Malpas, L.
Justification:
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; American Samoa; Angola; Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Armenia; Aruba; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahamas; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bermuda; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Botswana; Brazil; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Cayman Islands; Chad; Chile; China; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Colombia; Comoros; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Curaçao; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Faroe Islands; Fiji; Finland; France; French Guiana; French Polynesia; French Southern Territories; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guam; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kiribati; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Marshall Islands; Martinique; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mongolia; Montenegro; Montserrat; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nauru; Nepal; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Niue; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Qatar; Réunion; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Saint Barthélemy; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Sao Tomé and Principe; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Slovakia; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; South Sudan; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Sweden; Switzerland; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tokelau; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Turks and Caicos Islands; Tuvalu; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Western Sahara; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Vagrant:
Belarus; Lesotho; Liechtenstein; Luxembourg; Paraguay; Rwanda; Slovenia; Swaziland
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:27600000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The global population is estimated to number c.460,000-730,000 individuals (Wetlands International, 2015). National population estimates include: c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 35,900-77,100 pairs, which equates to 71,800-154,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend Justification:  The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). In North America the trend is increasing (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007) whilst in Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 21.9 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Behaviour This species is fully migratory (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It breeds from May to early-August (Hayman et al. 1986) in solitary pairs (del Hoyo et al. 1996), although several pairs may nest close together in optimal habitats (Johnsgard 1981) along coasts or on islands (Snow and Perrins 1998). The species migrates in large flocks (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and is gregarious and sociable when feeding or roosting in winter (Snow and Perrins 1998), often foraging in close flocks of 10-100 or more individuals, especially in tidal areas (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat Breeding The species breeds near the coast or up to several kilometres inland (Snow and Perrins 1998) in the high Arctic (Hayman et al. 1986), nesting on coastal plains, marshes and tundra (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and showing a preference for mosaics of bare rock, clay or shingle and vegetation near water (Snow and Perrins 1998) or in areas that remain damp until late summer (Johnsgard 1981). Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season the species is mainly coastal (del Hoyo et al. 1996), although on migration it may occur inland along dykes or on lake shores (del Hoyo et al. 1996). During the winter it frequents productive rocky and shingle shores (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996), breakwaters (del Hoyo et al. 1996), sandy beaches with storm-wracked seaweed (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996), short-grass saltmarshes, sheltered inlets, estuaries, mangroves swamps, exposed reefs and mudflats with beds of molluscs (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet Breeding On its Arctic breeding grounds the species takes Diptera(especially adult and larval midges) as well as larval Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera and spiders, occasionally also taking vegetable matter early in the season (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season its diet consists of insects, crustaceans, molluscs (del Hoyo et al. 1996) (especially mussels or cockles) (Johnsgard 1981), annelids, echinoderms, small fish, carrion and birds eggs (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a shallow depression (del Hoyo et al. 1996) in mud, peat or on dry ground (Johnsgard 1981) with dense vegetation (del Hoyo et al. 1996), often positioned on a slight ridge, hummock or tussock, or in cleft or shallow fissure (Snow and Perrins 1998). The species usually nests solitarily, although neighbouring pairs may nest as little as 15 m apart along coasts or on islands (where abundant feeding habitats are available) (Snow and Perrins 1998). Management information Removing feral American mink Neovison vison from a large archipelago with many small islands in the Baltic Sea had the result of increasing the breeding density of this species in the area (Nordstrom et al. 2003).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):7.3
Movement patterns:Full Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species suffers nest predation from feral American mink Neovison vison in some regions (Nordstrom et al. 2003), and is susceptible to avian influenza so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the virus (Melville and Shortridge 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed on Annex II of the Bern Convention.

Conservation Actions Proposed
The following information refers to the species's European range only: Removing feral American Mink (Neovison vison) from a large archipelago with many small islands in the Baltic Sea had the result of increasing the breeding density of this species in the area (Nordström et al. 2003).

Classifications [top]

4. Grassland -> 4.1. Grassland - Tundra
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.10. Wetlands (inland) - Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt)
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.1. Outer Reef Channel
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.2. Back Slope
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.3. Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.4. Lagoon
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.5. Inter-Reef Soft Substrate
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.6. Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.10. Marine Neritic - Estuaries
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.1. Marine Intertidal - Rocky Shoreline
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.2. Marine Intertidal - Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.3. Marine Intertidal - Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.4. Marine Intertidal - Mud Flats and Salt Flats
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.5. Marine Intertidal - Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.6. Marine Intertidal - Tidepools
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:Yes
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration
♦ timing:Future ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Unknown  
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects

Bibliography [top]

Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

Delany, S. and Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., and Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Hayman, P.; Marchant, J.; Prater, A. J. 1986. Shorebirds. Croom Helm, London.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers and snipes of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, U.S.A. and London.

Melville, D.S. and Shortridge, K.F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 432-438. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.

Nordström, M.; Högmander, J.; Nummelin, J.; Laine, J.; Laanetu, N.; Korpimäki, E. 2003. Effects of feral mink removal on seabirds, waders and passerines on small islands in the Baltic Sea. Biological Conservation 109: 359-368.

Snow, D.W. and Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.


Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Arenaria interpres. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22693336A86589171. . Downloaded on 20 August 2018.
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