Map_thumbnail_large_font

Schoutedenapus schoutedeni 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Caprimulgiformes Apodidae

Scientific Name: Schoutedenapus schoutedeni (Prigogine, 1960)
Common Name(s):
English Schouteden's Swift, Congo Swift
French Martinet de Schouteden
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Identification information: 17 cm. Dark-coloured swift. Appears all black in the field with medium-forked tail. Similar spp. May be impossible to separate in the field from Scarce Swift S. myoptilus. Voice Unknown.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable C2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Butynski, T.M. & Plumptre, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., Shutes, S., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Westrip, J.
Justification:
This little-known species is presumed to have a small population which is almost certainly declining as its forest habitat is severely threatened. It is, therefore, classified as Vulnerable.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Schoutedenapus schoutedeni is known with certainty from only five specimens to the east and north-east of the Itombwe Mountains in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), where it appears to be resident. However, there are possible sightings from Bwindi Forest, Uganda (near the border with the DRC), and from Mt Tshiaberimu to the north-west of Lake Edward (DRC) (Sarmiento and Butynski 1997), which indicates that the species may have a less restricted range than previously thought (T. Butynski in litt. 1999).

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:22000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):1000
Upper elevation limit (metres):2700
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is assumed to be small (<10,000) owing to the lack of confirmed records other than five specimens collected during 1956-1972. It is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals, equating to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be declining in line with the clearance and degradation of forest within the species's range.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:2500-9999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:1Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:Yes
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species was formerly known only from clearings in transitional and lowland forest, at low and intermediate altitudes (c.1,000-1,470 m), but there are now indications that it may also be found over montane forest (up to 2,700 m [T. Butynski in litt. 1999]). Breeding takes place in February or March.

Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):5.1
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat loss is the most likely threat as the Itombwe Forest is under increasing pressure from pastoralists, farmers, pit-sawyers, miners and hunters (Omari et al 1999), although this may be reduced by its recent designation as a community reserve (A. Plumptre in litt. 2007). Clearance for agriculture increased dramatically as corn crops failed, causing famine (Omari et al 1999). The human population in the area is increasing rapidly, and thousands of refugees from Burundi and Rwanda live in camps at the base of Itombwe's eastern escarpment and to the north (Omari et al 1999).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Itombwe Forest has been gazetted as a Nature Reserve (A. Plumptre in litt. 2007). No other potentially relevant conservation action is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct field surveys in the Itombwe Mountains to determine its distribution more accurately and to assess its population size. Once a baseline population estimate has been obtained, continue to monitor population trends. Monitor rates of habitat loss and degradation within the species's range. Ensure effective protection of Itombwe Forest Nature Reserve. Increase the area of suitable habitat that has protected status.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.2. Unintentional effects (species is not the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

Bibliography [top]

Brooke, R. K. 1971. Taxonomic history of Schoutedenapus schoutedeni. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 91: 93-94.

Collar, N. J.; Stuart, S. N. 1985. Threatened birds of Africa and related islands: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, and International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Cambridge, U.K.

Dowsett, R. J.; Dowsett-Lemaire, F. 1993. Comments on the taxonomy of some Afrotropical bird species. In: Dowsett, R.J.; Dowsett-Lemaire, F. (ed.), A contribution to the distribution and taxonomy of Afrotropical and Malagasy birds, pp. 323-389. Tauraco Press, Liège, Belgium.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Omari, I.; Hart, J. A.; Butynski, T. M.; Birnashirwa, N. R.; Upoki, A.; M'Keyo, Y.; Bengana, F.; Bashonga, M.; Baguruburnwe, N. 1999. The Itombwe Massif, Democratic Republic of Congo: biological surveys and conservation, with an emphasis on Grauer's gorilla and birds endemic to the Albertine Rift. Oryx 33: 301-322.

Sarmiento, E. E.; Butynski, T. M. 1997. Preliminary report on the Mt. Tshiaberimu survey.

Sibley, C.G. and Monroe, B.L. 1990. Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

White, C. M. N. 1965. A revised checklist of African non-passerine birds. Government Printer, Lusaka.


Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Schoutedenapus schoutedeni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22686625A93118820. . Downloaded on 20 June 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided