|Scientific Name:||Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons|
|Species Authority:||(Lawrence, 1880)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Identification information:||18-19 cm. Chunky parakeet. Mostly dark green, with rufous area around bill and bluish tinge to primaries. Similar spp. Barred Parakeet B. lineola generally occurs at lower elevations and is smaller, with pale bill, and black shoulder patch, wing-bars and barring on flanks. Voice Flight call a rapid wader-like mid-range chattering|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(iii,v);C2a(i);D2 ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Downing, C. & Salaman, P.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A.|
This species is listed to Vulnerable because it has a small population which is continuing to decline because of ongoing habitat degradation, with a high proportion of birds concentrated in one or two strongholds.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons is known only from the Central Andes in Colombia. Most records are from the Volcán Ruiz-Tolima massif in Tolima, Risaralda, Quindío and Caldas, but there are two specimens and a few observations from Volcán Puracé in Cauca, and it is probably present at low densities along the intervening ridge. The population has recently been estimated at 2,000-4,000 individuals (Renjifo et al. 2002), significantly higher than previous estimates. In September 1993, the species was found to be common (over 100 birds seen in eight hours) at El Bosque, below Laguna de Otún, in its stronghold, Los Nevados National Park (Salaman and Gandy 1993).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated to number 2,000-4,000 individuals, roughly equating to 1,300-2,700 mature individuals.|
Trend Justification: A slow and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of habitat destruction and degradation, particularly in the páramo.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It inhabits temperate sub-páramo and páramo at 3,000-4,000 m, sometimes as low as 2,800 m. It also uses modified shrublands and agricultural areas in the temperate zone, and seems tolerant of heavily modified habitats (C. Downing in litt. 2003). It is a gregarious species, tending to occur in noisy flocks of 10-100 individuals, and roosting communally on cliffs (Juniper and Parr 1998). It forages terrestrially, mostly taking grass-seeds (especially Anthoxantum odoratum [Verhelst et al. 2002]), the fruits of Acaenia elongata (Verhelst et al. 2002) and flowers, and has adapted to some forms of habitat modification, possibly even preferring to feed in fallow fields and areas altered by grazing (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, Snyder et al. 2000, Verhelst et al. 2002). Although it reportedly nests in cliffs (Hilty and Brown 1986, Collar 1997), the only documented nest was constructed of moss and located 18m up in a Myrcianthes sp. tree (Anon. 2007).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||6|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Conversion of forest for agricultural purposes has been widespread below 3,300 m in the Central Andes. At higher elevations, the forest is exploited for firewood and grazing, but large areas remain. Given its adaptation to the agricultural environment, the level of threat posed by deforestation is unknown (Snyder et al. 2000). Conversely, widespread destruction of páramo vegetation, even in Los Nevados, seems to have seriously affected numbers. This is caused by frequent burning (promoting fresh shooting), intense grazing and, to a lesser extent, conversion to potato cultivation. The Colombian authorities have been unable to purchase pre-existing landholdings within national parks, often rendering the parks ineffective. It is occasionally kept as a pet.|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Known populations are within the ineffectively protected Los Nevados and Puracé National Parks (Snyder et al. 2000). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey and monitor the species's population movements, densities and distribution. Clarify its natural history and threats to identify appropriate conservation actions (Snyder et al. 2000). Enhance the protection of Los Nevados through fire control, a major reduction in livestock-grazing and agriculture and, where necessary, compensation to farmers.
Anon. 2007. Discovered: the first ever nest of the Rufous-fronted Parakeet. Cyanopsitta: 15.
Collar, N. J. 1997. Psittacidae (Parrots). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 280-477. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Collar, N.J., Gonzaga, L.P., Krabbe, N., Madroño Nieto, A., Naranjo, L.G., Parker, T.A. and Wege, D.C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.
Hilty, S. L.; Brown, W. L. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1998. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.
Renjifo, L. M.; Franco-Maya, A. M.; Amaya-Espinel, J. D.; Kattan, G. H.; López-Lanús, B. 2002. Libro rojo de aves de Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt y Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Bogotá, Colombia.
Salaman, P.; Gandy, D. 1993. Colombia '93: Thunder Lake Expedition.
Snyder, N.; McGowan, P.; Gilardi, J.; Grajal, A. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Verhelst, J. C.; Pfeifer, A. M.; Orrego, O.; Botero, J. E. 2002. Observaciones sobre la ecología del Periquito Frentirufo Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons en zonas cercanas a la Laguna del Otún. Cotinga 18: 66-70.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22685919A93092239.Downloaded on 23 May 2017.|
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