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Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons
Species Authority: (Lawrence, 1880)
Common Name(s):
English Rufous-fronted Parakeet
Spanish Catita Frentirrufa
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Identification information: 18-19 cm. Chunky parakeet. Mostly dark green, with rufous area around bill and bluish tinge to primaries. Similar spp. Barred Parakeet B. lineola generally occurs at lower elevations and is smaller, with pale bill, and black shoulder patch, wing-bars and barring on flanks. Voice Flight call a rapid wader-like mid-range chattering

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii,v);C2a(i);D2 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Downing, C. & Salaman, P.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A.
Justification:
This species is listed to Vulnerable because it has a small population which is continuing to decline because of ongoing habitat degradation, with a high proportion of birds concentrated in one or two strongholds.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons is known only from the Central Andes in Colombia. Most records are from the Volcán Ruiz-Tolima massif in Tolima, Risaralda, Quindío and Caldas, but there are two specimens and a few observations from Volcán Puracé in Cauca, and it is probably present at low densities along the intervening ridge. The population has recently been estimated at 2,000-4,000 individuals (Renjifo et al. 2002), significantly higher than previous estimates. In September 1993, the species was found to be common (over 100 birds seen in eight hours) at El Bosque, below Laguna de Otún, in its stronghold, Los Nevados National Park (Salaman and Gandy 1993).

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Colombia
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:18600
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:6-10Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):3200
Upper elevation limit (metres):4000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is estimated to number 2,000-4,000 individuals, roughly equating to 1,300-2,700 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  A slow and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of habitat destruction and degradation, particularly in the páramo.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:1300-2700Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:2Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It inhabits temperate sub-páramo and páramo at 3,000-4,000 m, sometimes as low as 2,800 m. It also uses modified shrublands and agricultural areas in the temperate zone, and seems tolerant of heavily modified habitats (C. Downing in litt. 2003). It is a gregarious species, tending to occur in noisy flocks of 10-100 individuals, and roosting communally on cliffs (Juniper and Parr 1998). It forages terrestrially, mostly taking grass-seeds (especially Anthoxantum odoratum [Verhelst et al. 2002]), the fruits of Acaenia elongata (Verhelst et al. 2002) and flowers, and has adapted to some forms of habitat modification, possibly even preferring to feed in fallow fields and areas altered by grazing (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, Snyder et al. 2000, Verhelst et al. 2002). Although it reportedly nests in cliffs (Hilty and Brown 1986, Collar 1997), the only documented nest was constructed of moss and located 18m up in a Myrcianthes sp. tree (Anon. 2007).

Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):6
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Conversion of forest for agricultural purposes has been widespread below 3,300 m in the Central Andes. At higher elevations, the forest is exploited for firewood and grazing, but large areas remain. Given its adaptation to the agricultural environment, the level of threat posed by deforestation is unknown (Snyder et al. 2000). Conversely, widespread destruction of páramo vegetation, even in Los Nevados, seems to have seriously affected numbers. This is caused by frequent burning (promoting fresh shooting), intense grazing and, to a lesser extent, conversion to potato cultivation. The Colombian authorities have been unable to purchase pre-existing landholdings within national parks, often rendering the parks ineffective. It is occasionally kept as a pet.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Known populations are within the ineffectively protected Los Nevados and Puracé National Parks (Snyder et al. 2000).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey and monitor the species's population movements, densities and distribution. Clarify its natural history and threats to identify appropriate conservation actions (Snyder et al. 2000). Enhance the protection of Los Nevados through fire control, a major reduction in livestock-grazing and agriculture and, where necessary, compensation to farmers.

Classifications [top]

14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.7. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:Yes
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines  
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines  
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines  
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:No decline  
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines  
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Anon. 2007. Discovered: the first ever nest of the Rufous-fronted Parakeet. Cyanopsitta: 15.

Collar, N. J. 1997. Psittacidae (Parrots). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 280-477. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Collar, N.J., Gonzaga, L.P., Krabbe, N., Madroño Nieto, A., Naranjo, L.G., Parker, T.A. and Wege, D.C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Hilty, S. L.; Brown, W. L. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1998. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Renjifo, L. M.; Franco-Maya, A. M.; Amaya-Espinel, J. D.; Kattan, G. H.; López-Lanús, B. 2002. Libro rojo de aves de Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt y Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Bogotá, Colombia.

Salaman, P.; Gandy, D. 1993. Colombia '93: Thunder Lake Expedition.

Snyder, N.; McGowan, P.; Gilardi, J.; Grajal, A. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Verhelst, J. C.; Pfeifer, A. M.; Orrego, O.; Botero, J. E. 2002. Observaciones sobre la ecología del Periquito Frentirufo Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons en zonas cercanas a la Laguna del Otún. Cotinga 18: 66-70.


Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22685919A93092239. . Downloaded on 23 May 2017.
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