|Scientific Name:||Tursiops truncatus|
|Species Authority:||(Montagu, 1821)|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
Tursiops gephyreus Lahille, 1908
Tursiops gilli Dall, 1873
Tursiops nuuanu Andrews, 1911
|Taxonomic Notes:||All bottlenose dolphins around the world were previously recognized as T. truncatus, but recently the genus has been split into two species: T. truncatus and T. aduncus (the smaller Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin – Wang et al. 1999, 2000a,b). However, the taxonomy of bottlenose dolphins is confused, due to geographical variation, and it is very possible that additional species will be recognized in the future. For example, two forms in the North Atlantic, an offshore and a coastal form, are distinguishable on the basis of morphology and ecological markers (e.g., Mead and Potter 1995), have fixed genetic differences and, therefore, eventually may be assigned to different species (Leduc and Curry 1997, Hoelzel et al. 1998, Reeves et al. 2003).
Bottlenose dolphins in the Black Sea are recognized as a subspecies possessing morphological differences from Atlantic and Pacific dolphins (Barabasch-Nikiforov 1960, Geptner et al. 1976). The Black Sea subpopulation is also differentiated genetically from other bottlenose dolphins in the eastern and western Mediterranean and the northeastern Atlantic (Natoli et al. 2005), and the available evidence (Birkun 2006) supports recognition of the subspecies T. t. ponticus.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Hammond, P.S., Bearzi, G., Bjørge, A., Forney, K.A., Karkzmarski, L., Kasuya, T., Perrin, W.F., Scott, M.D., Wang, J.Y. , Wells, R.S. & Wilson, B.|
|Reviewer(s):||Rojas-Bracho, L. & Smith, B.|
Although there are many threats operating on local populations, the species is widespread and abundant, and none of these threats is believed to be resulting in a major global population decline.
|Range Description:||Common Bottlenose Dolphins are distributed worldwide through tropical and temperate inshore, coastal, shelf, and oceanic waters (Leatherwood and Reeves 1990, Wells and Scott 1999, Reynolds et al. 2000). Bottlenose Dolphins generally do not range pole-ward of 45°except in northern Europe (as far as the Faroe Islands 62°N 7°W - Bloch and Mikkelsen 2000) and to southern New Zealand. The species is rare in the Baltic Sea (it may best be considered extralimital there) and is vagrant to Newfoundland and Norway (Wells and Scott 1999).
The map shows where the species may occur based on oceanography. The species has not been recorded for all the states within the hypothetical range as shown on the map. States for which confirmed records of the species exist are included in the list of native range states. States within the hypothetical range but for which no confirmed records exist are included in the Presence Uncertain list.
Native:Albania; Algeria; American Samoa (American Samoa); Angola (Angola); Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Aruba; Australia; Bahamas; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Bosnia and Herzegovina; Brazil; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada (Newfoundland I - Vagrant); Cape Verde; Cayman Islands; Chile; China; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Colombia; Comoros; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Curaçao; Cyprus; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Faroe Islands; Fiji; France; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guam; Guatemala; Guernsey; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Ireland; Isle of Man; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jersey; Kenya; Kiribati; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Malta; Marshall Islands; Martinique; Mauritania; Mayotte; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nauru; Netherlands; Netherlands Antilles (Bonaire); New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Niue; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Peru; Philippines; Pitcairn; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Qatar; Réunion; Romania; Russian Federation; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Sao Tomé and Principe; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Seychelles; Singapore; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Slovenia; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turks and Caicos Islands; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States (Georgia); Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Wallis and Futuna; Western Sahara; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – southeast; Indian Ocean – western; Indian Ocean – eastern; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central; Pacific – northeast; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Abundance has been estimated for several parts of the species' range. Summing available estimates, a minimum world-wide estimate is 600,000.
U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service surveys have estimated 52,000 Bottlenose Dolphins in the northern Gulf of Mexico (3,708 [CV=42%] in oceanic waters beyond the shelf edge (Mullin 2006), 25,320 [CV=26%] on the outer continental shelf, 17,602 in coastal waters, and 5,063 in estuaries, bays, and channels – Waring et al. 2008). There are approximately 126,000 off the eastern coast of North America (including 81,588 [CV=17%] in offshore waters and 32,533 (winter) to 43,951 (summer) in coastal waters – Waring et al. 2008). Pacific surveys found 243,500 (CV=29%) in the eastern tropical Pacific (Wade and Gerrodette 1993), 3,215 (CV= 59%) off Hawaii (Barlow 2006), 323 (CV=13%) in coastal California waters (Dudzik et al. 2006), and an average of about 2,000 (CV = 44%) in the offshore waters of California/Oregon/Washington (Barlow and Forney in press). Japanese surveys found 168,000 (CV=26%) in the Northwestern Pacific west of 180ºE, including 36,791 (CV=25%) in Japanese coastal waters (Miyashita 1993). In the eastern Sulu Sea, Dolar et al (2006) estimated 2,628. Approximately 900 Bottlenose Dolphins were found along 400 km of coastal waters off KwaZulu-Natal (however, many of these may have been T. aduncus - Reyes 1991; Wells and Scott 1999).
Total abundance in the Mediterranean is unknown but thought to be in the low 10,000s based on observed densities in areas that have been surveyed (Bearzi and Fortuna 2006). Surveys in the northwestern Mediterranean estimated 7,654 (CV=45%) present (Forcada et al. 2004). An estimated 584 (CV=28%) occur in the Alboran Sea (Cañadas and Hammond 2006). Mediterranean Bottlenose Dolphins exhibit population structure, based on toxicology and diet (Borrell et al. 2005) and genetics (Natoli et al. 2005).
The total population size in the Black Sea is unknown. However, there are recent abundance estimates for parts of the range suggesting that population size is at least several thousands (Birkun 2006).
Preliminary estimates from the late 1980s indicate about 1,000 dolphins occur around the Faroe Islands (Sigurjónsson et al. 1989, Sigurjónsson and Gunnlaugsson 1990, Bloch and Mikkelsen 2000). Estimates of inshore bottlenose dolphins along the European Atlantic coasts total at least 610 individuals (Liret et al. 1998, Wilson et al. 1999, Grellier and Wilson 2003, Evans et al. 2002, Ingram 2000, White and Webb 1995, Baines et al. 2002, Gaspar 2003). A wide-scale survey in 2005 of western European continental shelf waters including the western Baltic, North Sea and Atlantic margin as far as southern Spain estimated that there were 12,600 Bottlenose Dolphins in this area (CV=27%, P. Hammond pers. comm..). Minimum estimates exist for other small areas around the world: for example, 122 (95% CI = 114-140) off Belize (Kerr et al. 2005) and 66 in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand (Hase and Schneider 2001).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Common Bottlenose Dolphins tend to be primarily coastal, but they can also be found in pelagic waters (Wells and Scott 1999). Where distinct ecotypes are known, the inshore form frequents estuaries, bays, lagoons and other shallow coastal regions, occasionally ranging far up into rivers. The offshore form is apparently less restricted in range and movement. Some offshore dolphins are residents around oceanic islands. In many inshore areas Bottlenose Dolphins maintain definable, long-term multi-generational home ranges, but in some locations near the extremes of the species range they are migratory. Off the coasts of North America, they tend to inhabit waters with surface temperatures ranging from about 10°C to 32°C (Wells and Scott, 1999). Black Sea Bottlenose Dolphins are common over the continental shelf; they sometimes occur far offshore (Birkun 2006).
Bottlenose Dolphins are commonly associated with many other cetaceans, including both large whales and other dolphin species (Wells and Scott 1999). Mixed schools with Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins have been found, for instance off China and Taiwan (J. Wang pers. comm.).
Bottlenose Dolphins consume a wide variety of prey species, mostly fish and squid (Barros and Odell 1990, Barros and Wells 1998, Blanco et al. 2001, Santos et al. 2001). They sometimes eat shrimps and other crustaceans.
|Use and Trade:||It is hunted in many areas for human consumption, and as bait in fisheries. In addition, animals are removed from the widely for captive display.|
Coastal and island-centred populations are especially vulnerable to hunting, incidental catch, and habitat degradation (Curry and Smith 1997). Acute conservation problems are known or suspected in at least: (a) the Mediterranean and Black seas (IWC 1992, Reeves and Notarbartolo di Sciara 2006); (b) Sri Lanka (Leatherwood and Reeves 1989); (c) Peru, Ecuador and Chile (Read et al. 1988; Van Waerebeek et al. 1990, 1997; Sanino et al. 2004; K. Van Waerebeek pers. comm.); (d) Taiwan (Hammond and Leatherwood 1984, Perrin 1989, Wang et al. 1999); and (e) Japan (Miyazaki 1983, Kasuya 1985, Reeves et al. 2003). Dolphin catches for bait, human consumption, or to remove competition with fisheries have been reported worldwide (Wells and Scott 1999, 2002). In Peru, coastal fisheries still take Tursiops and other cetaceans for human consumption and bait, using harpoons and gill nets (K. Van Waerebeek pers. comm.). It is taken opportunistically by harpoon in Sri Lanka (Ilangakoon 1997). In Taiwan, Common Bottlenose Dolphins comprise a major part of the small cetaceans taken by harpoon (J. Wang pers. comm.).
The only Mediterranean area with quantitative historical information is the northern Adriatic Sea, where Bottlenose Dolphins likely have declined by at least 50% over the past 50 years, largely as a consequence of historical killing in extermination campaigns to reduce competition for fish, followed by habitat degradation and overfishing. The extermination campaigns were conducted until the early 1960s (Bearzi et al. 2004, Bearzi and Fortuna 2006). For the north-western Mediterranean, the available information suggests similar trends (Bearzi and Fortuna 2006).
Drive fisheries have been reported from the Faroe Islands and Japan. Up to 308 are taken annually in the Faroe Islands drive fishery (dating back to 1803), often with Long-finned Pilot Whales (Reyes 1991; Bloch 1998). Drive and harpoon fisheries in Japan catch Bottlenose Dolphins for human consumption and to remove perceived competition with commercial fisheries (Wells and Scott 1999). Average catch from 1995–2004 was 594 per annum (Kasuya 2007).
The Black Sea subspecies has had extensive directed takes for commercial products (Kleinenberg 1956, Tomilin 1957, Buckland et al. 1992), including takes of at least 24,000–28,000 during 1946–1983 in the Black Sea off Turkey. However, the total number of dolphins killed was certainly much greater (probably by tens of thousands) as figures do not include, or only partially include, catch statistics from other Black Sea countries (Birkun 2006).
Live capture of Common Bottlenose Dolphins for public display, research, and military applications have occurred in several parts of the species' range. Worldwide estimates of removal are unavailable, but more than 1,500 were caught in United States, Mexican, and Bahamian waters through 1980 (Leatherwood and Reeves 1982, Fisher and Reeves 2005). Some live-capture removals continue in other countries including Cuba where at least 238 were captured in 1986–2004 (Van Waerebeek et al. 2006), the Solomon Islands, Japan, and China (Wells and Scott 1999, R.S. Wells pers. comm.). Live-capture removal of Black Sea Bottlenose Dolphins, including mortality during capture operations, is estimated at 1,000–2,000 since the early 1960s. Live-captures continue in the Russian Federation, with 10-20 animals taken annually from a small area in the Kerch Strait, Russia (Birkun 2002a, 2006). According to CITES statistics, at least 92 individuals were removed from the Black Sea region during 1990-1999 (Reeves et al. 2003), and Russia reportedly has exported at least 66 for travelling shows since 1997 (Fisher and Reeves 2005).
Incidental catches of Common Bottlenose Dolphins are known from throughout the species’ range, in gillnets, driftnets, purse seines, trawls, long-lines, and on hook-and-line gear used in commercial and recreational fisheries, but the level of mortality is often poorly documented (Wells and Scott 1999). Gillnet and purse-seine fisheries off Peru take an unknown number annually. An estimated 42 common Bottlenose Dolphins were taken and landed at Cerro Azul, a Peruvian port, in 1994; while an annual gillnet fisheries bycatch of 227 animals was estimated for the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador, also in 1994 (Van Waerebeek et al. 1997). The estimated annual incidental mortality in the eastern tropical Pacific fishery for tuna ranged up to almost 200, but the mortality has declined to less than 10 since 1998 (M. Scott pers. comm.). Incidental catches in Chinese fisheries reach several hundred per year (Yang et al. 1999). Coastal gillnets and shark drift gillnets in the mid-Atlantic region of the US take on average 66 annually (Waring et al. 2008). They are taken incidentally in gillnets in Sri Lanka (Ilangakoon 1997). Taiwanese coastal and distant water longline fisheries for tuna and sharks take bottlenose dolphins incidentally (for the latter, the origin of the animals is unknown), as do a variety of gillnets, including driftnets (Wang and Yang 2002; J. Wang pers. comm.).
Annual Black Sea Bottlenose Dolphin incidental mortality in bottom-set gillnets from 1946 through the 1980s is roughly estimated in the hundreds. The scale of this mortality almost certainly increased in the 1990s-2000s owing to the rapid expansion of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (Birkun 2006). According to Öztürk (1999) at least 200–300 Bottlenose Dolphins per year may be taken incidentally in Turkish fisheries in a variety of fishing nets, especially bottom-set gill nets.
Common Bottlenose Dolphins in coastal areas are exposed to a wide variety of threats in addition to direct and indirect takes. Threats that are cause for concern include: 1) the toxic effects of xenobiotic chemicals; 2) reduced prey availability caused by environmental degradation and overfishing (Pauly et al. 1998; Jackson et al. 2001); 3) direct and indirect disturbance and harassment (e.g. boat traffic and commercial dolphin watching and interactive programs); 4) marine construction and demolition and 5) other forms of habitat destruction and degradation (including anthropogenic noise). Although these and other threats are technically challenging to quantify by comparison with takes, their cumulative impact is likely to result in longitudinal population declines. Lack of historical data in many cases hampers understanding of long term trends, possibly resulting in shifting baselines. The contribution of anthropogenic factors to an increasing number of Unusual Mortality Events involving Bottlenose Dolphins remains to be determined (Spradlin et al. 2005).
Environmental contaminants likely impact health and reproductive success of the Common Bottlenose Dolphins in parts of its range. Lahvis et al. (1995) correlated concentrations of PCBs and DDT in the blood of inshore Bottlenose Dolphins with decline in immune system function. Males in some areas such as Florida accumulate levels of PCBs more than an order of magnitude greater than the threshold for adverse health effects identified by Kannan et al. (2000) (Wells et al. 2005). A risk assessment relative to PCB burdens suggested elevated probabilities of first-born mortality at several sites in the U.S. (Schwacke et al. 2002, Wells et al. 2005).
Bottlenose Dolphins sometimes forage around fish-farm cages or take fish from gillnets (e.g., Reeves et al. 2001; Read et al. 2003), commercial trawling gear, crab traps, or recreational fishing gear (Wells and Scott 1999). This can result in incidental mortality through entanglement and ingestion of fishing gear.
The species is listed in Appendix II of CITES.
The Bottlenose Dolphin has been afforded special protected status under Annex II of the European Union’s Habitats Directive. Commercial hunting of Black Sea cetaceans including Bottlenose Dolphins was banned in 1966 in the former USSR, Bulgaria and Romania, and in 1983 in Turkey.
Baines, M. E., Reichelt, M., Evans, P. G. H. and Shepherd, B. 2002. Comparison of the abundance and distribution of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Cardigan Bay, UK. 16th Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society. Liege, Belgium.
Barabasch-Nikiforov, I. I. 1960. Measurements and coloration of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu) as the criterion for their subspecies differentiation. Nauch. Dokl. Vys. Shkoly, Biol. Sci. 1: 35-42.
Barlow, J. 2006. Cetacean abundance in Hawaiian waters estimated from a summer/fall survey in 2002. Marine Mammal Science 22(2): 446-464.
Barlow, J. and Forney, K. A. 2007. Abundance and density of cetaceans in the California Current ecosystem. Fishery Bulletin.
Barros, N. B. and Odell, D. K. 1990. Food habits of bottlenose dolphins in the southeastern United States. In: S. Leatherwood and R. R. Reeves (eds), The bottlenose dolphin, pp. 309-328. Academic Press.
Barros, N. B. and Wells, R. S. 1998. Prey and feeding patterns of resident bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Sarasota Bay, Florida. Journal of Mammalogy 79(3): 1045-1059.
Bearzi, G. and Fortuna, C. M. 2006. Common bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus (Mediterranean subpopulation). In: R. R. Reeves and G. Notarbartolo di Sciara (eds), The status and distribution of cetaceans in the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea, pp. 64-73. IUCN Centre for Mediterranean Cooperation, Malaga, Spain.
Bearzi, G., Holcer, D. and Notarbartolo Di Sciara, G. 2004. The role of historical dolphin takes and habitat degradation in shaping the present status of northern Adriatic cetaceans. Aquatic Conservation of Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 14: 363-379.
Bearzi, G., Politi, E., Agazzi, S. and Azzellino, A. 2006. Prey depletion caused by overfishing and the decline of marine megafauna in eastern Ionian Sea coastal waters (central Mediterranean). Biological Conservation 127(4): 373-382.
Birkun, A. 2006. Common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus ponticus): Black Sea subspecies. In: R. R. Reeves and G. Notarbartolo di Sciara (eds), The status and distribution of cetaceans in the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea, pp. 74-83. IUCN Centre for Mediterranean Cooperation, Malaga, Spain.
Birkun Jr., A. A. 2002. Direct killing and live capture: Black Sea. In: G. N. D. Sciara (ed.), Cetaceans of the Mediterranean and Black Seas: State of knowledge and conservation strategies, pp. 31-38. ACCOBAMS Secretariat, Monaco.
Blanco, C., Salomon, O. and Raga, J. A. 2001. Diet of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in the western Mediterranean Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 81: 1053-1058.
Bloch, D. 1998. A review of marine mammals observed, caught or stranded over the last two centuries in Faroese Waters. Shetland Sea Mammal Report 1997.
Bloch, D. and Mikkelsen, B. 2000. Preliminary estimates of seasonal abundance and food consumption of marine mammals in Faroese waters. NAMMCO.
Borrell, A., Aguilar, A., Tornero, V., Sequeira, M., Fernandez, G. and Alis, S. 2005. Organochlorine compounds and stable isotopes indicate bottlenose dolphin subpopulation structure around the Iberian Peninsula. Environment International 32(4): 516-523.
Buckland, S. T., Smith, T. and Cattanach, K. L. 1992. Status of small cetacean populations in the Black Sea: a review of current information and suggestions for future research. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 42: 513-516.
Canadas, A. and Hammond, P. S. 2006. Model-based abundance estimates for bottlenose dolphins off southern Spain: Implications for conservation and management. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 8(1): 13-28.
Carretta, J. V., Forney, K. A., Muto, M. M., Barlow, J., Baker, J., Hanson, J. and Lowry, M. S. 2006. U.S. Pacific marine mammal stock assessments: 2005. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SWFSC.
Curry, B. E. and Smith, J. 1997. Phylogeographic structure of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): stock identification and implications for management. In: A. E. Dizon, S. J. Chivers and W. F. Perrin (eds), Molecular genetics of marine mammals, pp. 227-247. The Society of Marine Mammalogy, Allen Press, Lawrence.
Dolar, M. L. L., Perrin, W. F., Taylor, B. L., Kooyman, G. L. and Alava, M. N. R. 2006. Abundance and distributional ecology of cetaceans in the central Philippines. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 8(1): 93-112.
Dudzik, K. J., Baker, K. M. and Weller, D. W. 2006. Mark-recapture abundance estimate of California coastal stock bottlenose dolphins: February 2004 to April 2005. Southwest Fisheries Center Administrative Report LJ-06-02C: 15 pp.
Evans, P. G. H., Baines, M. E., Shepherd, B. and Reichelt, M. 2002. Studying bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) abundance, distribution, habitat use and home range size in Cardigan Bay: implications for SAC management. European Cetacean Society 16th Annual Conference: 12 pp.. Liège, Belgium.
Fisher, S. J. and Reeves, R. R. 2005. The global trade in live cetaceans: Implications for conservation. Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy 8: 315-340.
Forcada, J., Gazo, M., Aguilar, A., Gonzalvo, J. and Fernandez-Contreras, M. 2004. Bottlenose dolphin abundance in the NW Mediterranean: Addressing heterogeneity in distribution. Marine Ecology Progress Series 275: 275-287.
Gaspar, R. 2003. Status of the resident bottlenose dolphin population in the Sado estuary: past, present, and future. PhD Thesis, University of St Andrews.
Geptner V. G., Naumov, N. P., Urgenson, M. B., Sludskiy, A. A., Chirkova A. F. and Bannikov, A. G. 1976. The Mammals of the Soviet Union, Vol. 2, Part 1: Carnivora. Vischay Shkola, Moscow, Russia.
Grellier, K. and Wilson, B. 2003. Bottlenose dolphins using the Sound of Barra, Scotland. Aquatic Mammals 29(3): 378-382.
Haase, P. and Schneider, K. 2001. Birth demographics of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in Doubtful Sound, Fiordland, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater 35: 675-680.
Hammond, D. D. and Leatherwood, S. 1984. Cetaceans live-captured for Ocean Park, Hong Kong April 1974-February 1983. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 34: 491-495.
Hoelzel, A. R., Potter, C. W. and Best, P. B. 1998. Genetic differentiation between parapatric 'nearshore' and 'offshore' populations of the bottlenose dolphin. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences 265: 1177-1183.
Ilangakoon, A. 1997. Species composition, seasonal variation, sex ratio and body length of small cetaceans caught off west, south-west and south coast of Sri Lanka. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 94: 298-306.
Ingram, S. N. 2000. The ecology and conservation of bottlenose dolphins in the Shannon estuary. University College.
International Whaling Commission. 1992. Report of the scientific committee. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 42: 51-270.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 October 2012).
Jackson, J. B. C., Kirby, M. X., Berger, W. H., Bjorndal, K. A., Botsford, L. W., Bourque, B. J., Bradbury, R. H., Cooke, R., Erlandson, J., Estes, J. A., Hughes, T. P., Kidwell, S., Lange, C. B., Lenihan, H. S., Pandolfi, J. M., Peterson, C. H., Steneck, R. S., Tegner, M. J. and Warner, R. R. 2001. Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293: 629-637.
Kannan, K., Blankenship, A. L., Jones, P. D. and Geisy, J. P. 2000. Toxicity reference values for the toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls to aquatic mammals. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 6: 181-201.
Kasuya, T. 1985. Effect of exploitation on reproductive parameters of the spotted and striped dolphins off the Pacific coast of Japan. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute 36: 107-138.
Kasuya, T. 2007. Japanese Whaling and other cetacean fisheries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 10: 39-48.
Kerr, K. A., Defran, R. H. and Campbell, G. S. 2005. Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Drowned Cayes, Belize: Group size, site fidelity and abundance. Caribbean Journal of Science 41: 172-177.
Kleinenberg, S. E. 1956. Marine mammals of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Results of joint biological-commercial dolphin whaling studies. USSR Academy of Science Press.
Lahvis, G. P., Wells, R. S., Kuehl, D. W., Stewart, J. L., Rhinehart, H. L. and Via, C. S. 1995. Decreased lymphocyte responses in free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are associated with increased concentrations of PCBs and DDT in peripheral blood. Environmental Health Perspectives 103: 67-72.
Leatherwood, S. and Reeves, R. R. 1982. Bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus and other toothed cetaceans. In: J. A. Chapman and G. A. Feldhammer (eds), Wild mammals of North America, pp. 369-414. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Leatherwood, S. and Reeves, R. R. 1991. Marine mammal research and conservation in Sri Lanka 1985-1986. UNEP Marine Mammal Technical Report. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.
Leatherwood, S. and Reeves, R. R. (eds). 1990. The Bottlenose Dolphin. pp. 1-653. Academic Press.
Leduc, R. G. and Curry, B. E. 1997. Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis indicates need for revision of the genus Tursiops. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47: 393.
Liret, C., Creton, P., Evans, P. G. H., Heimlich-Boran, J. R. and Ridoux, V. 1998. English and French coastal Tursiops from Cornwall to the Bay of Biscay, 1996. Photo-Identification Catalogue. Ministere de Environnement, France and Sea Watch Foundation, UK.
Mead, J. G. and Potter, C. W. 1995. Recognizing two populations of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) off the Atlantic coast of North America- morphologic and ecologic considerations. IBI Reports 5: 31-44.
Miyashita, T. 1993. Abundance of dolphin stocks in the western North Pacific taken by the Japanese drive fishery. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 43: 417-437.
Miyazaki, N. 1983. Catch statistics of small cetaceans taken in Japanese waters. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 33: 621-631.
Mullin, K. D. 2006. Abundance of cetaceans in the oceanic Gulf of Mexico based on 2003-2004 ship surveys.
Natoli, A., Birkun, A., Aguilar, A., Lopez, A. and Hoelzel, A. R. 2005. Habitat structure and the dispersal of male and female bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences 272: 1217-1226.
Öztürk, B. 1999. Black Sea Biological Diversity: Turkey. United Nations Publication, New York, USA.
Pauly, D., V., Christensen, Dalsgaard, J., Froese, R. and Torres Jr., F. 1998. Fishing Down Marine Food Webs. Science 279(5352): 860.
Perrin, W. F. 1989. Dolphins, porpoises, and whales. An action plan for the conservation of biological diversity: 1988-1992. IUCN/SSC Cetacean Specialist Group.
Read, A. J., Van Waerebeek, K., Reyes, J. C., Mckinnon, J. S. and Lehman, L. C. 1988. The exploitation of small cetaceans in coastal Peru. Biological Conservation 46: 53-70.
Read, A. J., Waples, D. M., Urian, K. W. and Swanner, D. 2003. Fine-scale behaviour of bottlenose dolphins around gillnets. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences 270: S90-92.
Reeves, R. R. and Notarbartolo Di Sciara, G. 2006. The status and distribution of cetaceans in the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea. IUCN Centre for Mediterranean Cooperation, Malaga, Spain.
Reeves, R. R., Read, A. J. and Notarbartolo Di Sciara, G. 2001. Report of the workshop on interactions between dolphins and fisheries in the Mediterranean: evaluation of mitigation alternatives. ICRAM, Rome, Italy.
Reeves, R. R., Smith, B. D., Crespo, E. A. and Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. 2003. Dolphins, Whales and Porpoises: 2002-2010 Conservation Action Plan for the World's Cetaceans. IUCN/SSC Cetacean Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Reyes, J. C. 1991. The conservation of small cetaceans: a review.
Reynolds, J. E., Wells, R. S. and Eide, S. D. 2000. The bottlenose dolphin: biology and conservation. University Press of Florida.
Sanino, G. P., Van Waerebeek, K., Van, M. F. Bressem and Pastene, L. A. 2005. A preliminary note on population structure in eastern South Pacific common bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 7(1): 65-70.
Santos, M. B., Pierce, G. J., Reid, R. J., Patterson, A. P., Ross, H. M. and Mente, E. 2001. Stomach contents of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Scottish waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association and United Kingdom 81: 873-878.
Schwacke, L. H., Voit, E. O., Hansen, L. J., Wells, R. S., Mitchum, G. B., Hohn, A. A. and Fair, P. A. 2002. Probabilistic risk assessment of reproductive effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the southeast United States coast. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21(12): 2752-2764.
Sigurjonsson, J. and Gunnlaugsson, T. 1990. Recent trends in abundance of blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) off West and Southwest Iceland, with a note on occurrence of other cetacean species. Report of the International Whaling Commission 40: 537-551.
Sigurjónsson, J., Gunnlaugsson, T. and Payne, M. 1989. Shipboard sighting surveys in Icelandic and adjacent waters June-July 1987. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 39: 395-409.
Spradlin, T. R., Gulland, F. M. D., Wells, R. S., Ragen, T. J. and Rowles, T. K. 2005. Review of marine mammal Unusual Mortality Events in the United States: 1992-2005. 16th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. San Diego, CA.
Tomilin, A. G. 1957. Mammals of the USSR and adjacent countries. Vol. IV. Cetaceans. USSR Academy of Science Publishing House, Moskou, Russia.
Van Waerebeek, K., Reyes, J. C., Read, A. J. and Mckinnon, J. S. 1990. Preliminary observations of bottlenose dolphins from the Pacific coast of South America. In: S. Leatherwoodand R. R. Reeves (ed.), The bottlenose dolphin, pp. 143-154. Academic Press.
Van Waerebeek, K., Sequeira, M., Williamson, C., Sanino, G. P., Gallego, P. and Carmo, P. 2006. Live-captures of common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus and unassessed bycatch in Cuban waters: evidence of sustainability found wanting. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 5(1): 39-48.
Van Waerebeek, K., Van Bressem, M. F., Felix, F., Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Garcia-Godos, A., Chavez-Lisambart, L., Onton, K., Montes, D. and Bello, R. 1997. Mortality of Dolphins and Porpoises in Coastal Fisheries off Peru and Southern Ecuador in 1994. Biological Conservation 81: 43-49.
Wade, P. R. and Gerrodette, T. 1993. Estimates of cetacean abundance and distribution in the eastern tropical Pacific. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 43: 477-493.
Wang, J. Y. and Yang, S. C. 2002. Interactions between Taiwan's distant water tuna longline fishery and cetaceans. Toothed Whales/Longline Fisheries Interactions in the South Pacific. Apia, Western Samoa.
Wang, J. Y., Chou, L. S. and White, B. N. 1999. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of sympatric morphotypes of bottlenose dolphins (genus: Tursiops) in Chinese waters. Molecular Ecology 8: 1603-1612.
Wang, J. Y., Chou, L. S. and White, B. N. 2000. Differences in external morphology of two sympatric species of bottlenose dolphins (genus Tursiops) in the waters of China. Journal of Mammalogy 81(4): 1157-1165.
Wang, J. Y., Chou, L. S. and White, B. N. 2000. Osteological differences between two sympatric forms of bottlenose dolphins (genus Tursiops) in Chinese waters. Journal of Zoology (London) 252: 147-162.
Waring, G. T., Josephson, E., Fairfield, C. P. and Maze-Foley, K. 2008. U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico marine mammal stock assessments - 2007. NOAA Technical Memorandum. NOAA.
Wells, R. S. and Scott, M. D. 1999. Bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821). In: S. H. Ridgway and R. Harrison (eds), Handbook of marine mammals, Vol. 6: The second book of dolphins and the porpoises, pp. 137-182. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.
Wells, R. S. and Scott, M. D. 2002. Bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus and T. aduncus. In: W. F. Perrin, B. Wursig and J. G. M. Thewissen (eds), Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, pp. 122-128. Academic Press.
Wells, R. S., Tornero, V., Borrell, A., Aguilar, A., Rowles, T. K., Rhinehart, H. L., Hofmann, S., Jarman, W. M., Hohn, A. A. and Sweeney, J. C. 2005. Integrating life-history and reproductive success data to examine potential relationships with organochlorine compounds for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Sarasota Bay, Florida. Science of the Total Environment 349: 106-119.
White, R. and Webb, A. 1995. Coastal birds and marine mammals of mid Dorest. Joint Nature Conservation Committee: 48 pp.. Peterborough, UK.
Wilson, B., Hammond, P. S. and Thompson, P. M. 1999. Estimating size and assessing trends in a coastal bottlenose dolphin population. Ecological Applications 9(1): 288-300.
Yang, S. C., Liao, H. C., Pan, C. L. and Wang, J. Y. 1999. A survey of cetaceans in the waters of central-eastern Taiwan. Asian Marine Biology 16: 23-34.
|Citation:||Hammond, P.S., Bearzi, G., Bjørge, A., Forney, K.A., Karkzmarski, L., Kasuya, T., Perrin, W.F., Scott, M.D., Wang, J.Y. , Wells, R.S. & Wilson, B. 2012. Tursiops truncatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 October 2014.|